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Table 3 Predictors of in-hospital mortality among paediatric patients hospitalised for malaria in Zomba, Malawi, 2002–2003

From: Patterns of malaria-related hospital admissions and mortality among Malawian children: an example of spatial modelling of hospital register data

Risk factor   % died (Admissions) Bivariate model Multiple spatial model
    UOR 95% CI AOR 95% CI
Age < 1 year 8.5 (1,189) 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 1.04 (0.84, 1.28)
  1–4 years 6.2 (2,136) 0.78 (0.68, 0.89) 0.84 (0.74, 0.98)
  5–14 years 10.6 (644) 1.00   1.00  
Sex Female child 7.7 (1,683) 1.01 (0.92, 1.12)   
  Male 7.6 (2,286) 1.00    
Day Weekend 7.5 (2,418) 1.01 (0.90, 1.11)   
  Weekday 7.5 (1,492) 1.00    
Season Wet 6.6 (2,262) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) 0.79 (0.63, 0.88)
  Dry 8.6 (1,128) 1.00   1.00  
Distance ≥ 5 kms 7.4 (1,938) 0.95 (0.84, 1.03) 0.78 (0.66, 0.94)
  > 5 kms 8.8 (1,999) 1.00   1.00  
Referral Yes 8.8 (1,895) 1.18 (1.08, 1.35) 2.95 (2.30, 3.75)
  No 6.1 (1,494) 1.00   1.00  
Length of stay 1 day 23.7 (891) 3.71 (2.24, 6.14) 2.56 (1.54, 4.20)
  2 days 2.6 (1,001) 0.32 (0.17, 0.59) 0.24 (0.14, 0.45)
  3 days 2.9 (860) 0.36 (0.19, 0.67) 0.31 (0.17, 0.55)
  4–6 days 2.2 (984) 0.27 (0.14, 0.52) 0.24 (0.13, 0.44)
  7–20 days 7.7 (233) 1.00   1.00  
Treatment other drugs 7.5 (240) 1.00    
  quinine 7.6 (3,629) 0.98 (0.60, 1.61)   
Heterogeneity term       
Unstructured effect τ u 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaaiiGacqWFepaDdaqhaaWcbaGaemyDauhabaGaeGOmaidaaaaa@310A@     2.04 (0.001, 8.75)
Structured effect τ s 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaaiiGacqWFepaDdaqhaaWcbaGaem4CamhabaGaeGOmaidaaaaa@3106@     23.74 (0.02, 78.68)
  1. UOR-unadjusted odds ratios, AOR-adjusted odds ratios, CI-confidence intervals
  2. Based on multiple logistic spatial model: Equation 2