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Table 2 Number of households visited, prevalence of illnesses, use of OTC antimalarials and malaria parasite prevalence (%: 95% CI)

From: Use of over-the-counter malaria medicines in children and adults in three districts in Kenya: implications for private medicine retailer interventions

  Busia Kwale Makueni All districts P values *
Households visited 4017 4174 4254 12 445 -
Children under 5 years
Number interviewed 3451 4081 3973 11 505 -
Recent fever 1437/3451 (41.7: 39.5, 43.9) 1770/4081 (43.3: 41.5, 45.2) 1216/3973 (30.8: 28.7, 33.0) 4423/11 505 (29.0: 28.1, 29.8) <0.001
Fevers first treated with OTC medicines 540/1437 (37.6: 35.1, 40.1) 898/1770 (50.7: 48.3, 53.1) 641/1216 (52.7: 49.8, 55.5) 2079/4423 (47.0: 45.5, 48.5) <0.001
OTC users taking an AM 237/519 (45.7: 41.3, 50.1) 147/898 (16.3: 13.9, 18.9) 83/638 (13.3: 9.5, 17.9) 467/2057 (22.7: 20.9, 24.6) <0.001
OTC SP users taking adequate dose§ 68/141 (48.3: 37.9, 58.8) 19/39 (48.6: 32.5, 64.9) 11/31 (40.4: 19.0, 66.3) 98/211 (46.4: 39.5, 53.4) 0.415
OTC AQ users taking adequate dose 16/112 (14.2: 8.7, 22.2) 5/56 (9.1: 4.0, 19.5) 3/31 (10.7: 3.4, 28.9) 24/98 (12.1: 16.3, 34.2) 0.547
Rapid malaria test positive 805/971 (82.8: 79.0, 86.1) 695/963 (71.1: 64.4, 76.9) 34/980 (3.2: 2.1, 4.8) 1534/2914 (52.6: 50.8, 54.4) <0.001
Adults
Number Interviewed 6198 6750 6966 19 914 -
Recent illness** 1027/6198 (16.6: 14.4, 19.0) 1805/6750 (26.7: 24.9, 28.6) 1268/6966 (18.2: 17.1, 19.4) 4098/19 914 (20.6: 20.0, 21.1) <0.001
First treated with OTC medicines 472/1027 (46.0: 42.8, 49.1) 1103/1805 (61.1: 58.8, 63.3) 753/126510 (59.5: 56.7, 62.2) 2328/4097 (56.8: 55.2, 58.3) <0.001
OTC users taking an AM Not collected†† 291/1081 (26.9: 21.3, 33.5) 384/745 (53.3: 48.6, 57.9) 675/1826 (36.9: 34.7, 39.2) <0.001
OTC SP users taking adequate dose 80/102 (78.3: 68.4, 85.8) 75/95 (79.4: 68.3, 87.3) 157/179 (87.7: 81.5, 92.0) 312/376 (83.8: 78.7, 86.6) 0.07
OTC AQ users taking adequate dose 2/44 (4.4: 1.1, 16.6) 0/148 5/174 (2.4: 0.9, 6.0) 7/336 (1.9: 0.8, 4.2) 0.07
  1. *. Chi-square test of association for differences between districts
  2. †. Includes episodes where the individual was visited 3 days or more after treatment begun to exclude part courses of amodioquine (also see methods); OTC medicines includes those bought from general shops, chemists or mobile vendors and those kept at home from. 2. All adults available in the home at the time of visit
  3. ‡ There were 21 episodes in Busia and 3 in Makueni where OTC medicine could not be identified
  4. §. Adequate dosage is according to MOH recommendations (see table 3 and 4): over dosage occurs when more and under dosage when less than the recommended amount of the drug is given
  5. All adults available in the home at the time of visit
  6. **. In Busia, the frequency refers to the number of adults reported "perceived malaria" whereas in Kwale and Makueni this represents the number of adults with a recent acute illness of any type, excluding trauma.
  7. †† Data on the proportion of acute illnesses in adults where an AM was used was not collected in Busia.