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Table 1 Assumptions on malaria incidence rates, parasite density, and effects of HIV-1, sub-Saharan Africa*

From: The impact of HIV-1 on the malaria parasite biomass in adults in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance

  Age group
HIV-negative persons and HIV-infected persons with CD4 ≥ 500/μl < 5 years 5–14 years ≥ 15 years
Incidence of symptomatic malaria (per person-year) low/high endemicity[10]    
   Rural 0.18/1.4 0.18/0.59 0.09/0.11
   Urban 0.09/0.18 0.091/0.18 0.046/0.09
Proportion of symptomatic episodes with hyperparasitaemia (includes severe malaria): low endemic and high endemic urban areas/high endemic rural areas 4.0%/4.0% 4.0%/1.5% 4.0%/1.5%
Geometric mean parasite density (/μL) in uncomplicated malaria: low endemic and high endemic urban areas/high endemic rural areas [13] 30,000/30,000 25,000/20,000 20,000/15,000
Geometric mean parasite density (/μL) in severe malaria (all age groups and endemicities) [20] 458 000
Proportion of HIV-1 patients [6] with CD4<200/μl CD4 200–499/μL  
Stabilized HIV epidemic 37% 25%  
Rising HIV epidemic (e.g.Madagascar) 22% 15%  
Relative change in HIV infection with CD4<200/μl CD4 200–499/μL  
Relative risk of symptomatic malaria incidence (all age groups and endemicities) [1, 2124] 5.0 3.0  
Relative parasite density in symptomatic malaria (all age groups and endemicities) (Table 2) 3.0 1.5  
Relative risk of progression to severe malaria (all age groups and endemicities) [16, 25, 26] 15.0 6  
Relative parasite density during severe malaria (all age groups and endemicities) 1.0 1.0