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Table 3 Estimated impact of HIV on malaria parasite biomass, sub-Saharan Africa, 2005*

From: The impact of HIV-1 on the malaria parasite biomass in adults in sub-Saharan Africa contributes to the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance

Country Adult HIV prevalence Urban % low-high malaria endemic Parasite biomass*109 /individual at risk in the absence of HIV HIV-related additional parasite biomass*109 /individual at risk Proportional increase in parasite load due to HIV (95%CI)
Mozambique 16.1% 38% 4 – 96 77.2 54.3 64.0 (41.0–95.8)
Zambia 17% 36.5% 16 – 83 67.8 42.8 59.1 (35.3–94.3)
Malawi 14.1% 17.2% 22 – 77 75.3 40.2 54.1 (26.4–96.8)
CARepublic 10.7% 43.8% 0 – 10 76.6 32.2 41.9 (23.4–77.3)
Uganda 6.5% 12.4% 20 – 73 75.3 20.6 25.2 (14.4–37.0)
Togo 6.7% 36.3% 0 – 100 82.2 19.1 22.1 (13.2–35.1)
Cote d'Ivoire 7.1% 45.8% 0 – 100 75.9 19.1 23.4 (14.2–39.1)
Congo 5.3% 54.4% 0 – 100 62.5 13.2 18.6 (9.8–29.3)
Swaziland 33.4% 23.9% 69 – 0 5.6 12.8 243.9 (122.1–402.3)
Gabon 7.9% 85.2% 0 – 96 38.5 12.5 30.7 (19.6–53.0)
Nigeria 3.9% 48.3% 1 – 99 70.8 12.0 16.7 (9.4–26.6)
Guinea-Bissau 3.8% 35.6% 0 – 100 78.9 11.4 13.9 (7.9–23.6)
Cameroon 5.4% 52.9% 24 – 74 53.3 11.3 20.1 (13.3–31.2)
Chad 3.5% 25.8% 14 – 86 76.3 11,2 15.1 (6.4–23.9)
Gambia 2.4% 26.1% 0 – 100 95.4 10.8 11.3 (5.8–19.0)
Botswana 24.1% 52.5% 13 – 0 4.9 9.3 197.6 (116.5–278.9)
DRCongo 3.2% 32.7% 10 – 85 73.7 9.2 12.2 (6.5–20.4)
Liberia 4% 47.9% 0 – 100 69.2 9.1 12.2 (7.3–21.5)
Equat Guinea 3.2% 50% 02–97 68.1 8.4 11.7 (7.1–18.0)
Tanzania 3.2% 37.5% 21 – 75 65.0 7.8 11.2 (5.8–19.4)
Zimbabwe 20.1% 35.9% 54 – 0 5.2 7.5 144.2 (75.6–221.0)
Ghana 2.3% 46.3% 02 – 98 76.1 7.5 9.2 (5.5–13.5)
Namibia 19.6% 33.5% 8 – 0 5.3 7.1 134.9 (74.4–247.1)
South Africa 18.8% 57.9% 15 – 0 5.0 6.8 137.0 (84.5–212.1)
Burkina Faso 2% 18.6% 0 – 100 94.9 6.5 6.8 (3.7–10.9)
Sudan 2.3% 40.8% 42 – 56 48.9 5.8 13.4 (4.2–28.3)
Kenya 6.1% 47.9% 57 – 21 22.8 5.7 25.6 (15.3–37.7)
Angola 3.7% 37.2% 53 – 46 38.9 5.7 14.7 (8.8–23.4)
Mali 1.7% 33.7% 10–90 72.7 5,0 6.5 (3.7–10.0)
Guinea 1.5% 36.5% 01–99 81.0 5.0 5.6 (3.3–8.3)
Benin 1.8% 46.1% 0 – 100 73.7 5.0 6.4 (3.6–10.4)
Burundi 3.3% 10.6% 64 – 21 29.9 4.1 13.5 (8.0–18.9)
Niger 1.1% 23.3% 11 – 89 79.4 2.8 3.5 (1.8–6.6)
Sierra Leone 1.6% 40.2% 0 – 100 78.9 2.7 3.6 (1.7–5.8)
Senegal 0.9% 51% 03–97 68.1 2.6 3.9 (2.1–6.4)
Eritrea 2.4% 20.8% 83 – 16 19.5 2.3 11.4 (5.8–19.8)
Ethiopia 2% 16.2% 50 – 14 25.7 2.0 8.2 (3.8–13.3)
Rwanda 3.1% 21.8% 60 – 7 14.3 2,0 13.8 (8.1–19.0)
Mauritania 0.7% 64.3% 59 – 41 25,4 1.3 5.3 (1.9–10.5)
Madagascar 0.5% 27% 36 – 60 58.3 1.1 2.0 (0.9–3.7)
Somalia 0.9% 35.9% 96 – 3 7.2 0.4 5.6 (2.5–9.2)
Average Africa $ 6.1%   23 – 87 55.1 9.9 18.0% (11.6–26.9)
Median Africa 3.5% 36.5% 11–83 68.0 7.5 14.1 (9.2–20.5)
  1. *Excluded from analyses were the following small countries: Seychelles, Reunion and Comoros, which are at negligible malaria risk and the islands of Sao Tome & Principe and Cap Verde, which are subject to stable transmission but have not been precisely characterized in the malaria risk model. Calculations used country-specific age distributions, based on HIV-1 prevalence estimates by UNAIDS/World Health Organization (WHO) for end of 2005[27], and assuming urban/rural ratios in HIV prevalence estimated by UNAIDS/WHO) for end of 2003 [27, 28]
  2. Urban and rural populations were based on countries' definitions[12], without standardization between countries.
  3. Individual at risk is person living in a malaria prone area.
  4. $ Weighted according to countries' population size living in malaria endemic areas.