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Table 2 Non-spatial bivariate and multivariate analysis of the association of survey and environmental covariates with Pf PR in north and south of Somalia.

From: Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

  Bivariate model Multivariate model
Zone Odds ratio (95%
Confidence
Interval)
P-value Odds ratio (95%
Confidence
Interval)
P-value
North     
Average annual Enhanced Vegetation Index 1.03 (1.06–1.11) <0.001 1.97 (0.24–1.63) 0.223
Average annual precipitation 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.002 1.04 (1.02–1.08) 0.002
Average annual minimum temperature     
<median of 20.4°C Ref - Ref -
>median of 20.4°C 2.02 (1.59–2.58) <0.001 1.35 (1.01–1.80) 0.045
Average annual maximum temperature     
<median of 32.4°C Ref - Ref -
>median of 32.4°C 2.63 (2.04–3.39) <0.001 - -
Distance to water features (km) 0.61 (0.49–.76) <0.001 0.68 (0.46–0.99) 0.049
Survey month     
   February Ref - Ref -
   July 2.83 (2.24–3.59) <0.001 3.24 (2.37–4.44) <0.001
   September 0.08 (0.04–0.16) <0.001 0.10 (0.04–0.19) <0.001
   November 1.66 (1.29–2.14) <0.001 1.58 (1.13–2.22) 0.008
South     
Average annual Enhanced Vegetation Index 1.09 (1.05–1.19) <0.001 1.60 (0.54–4.70) 0.215
Average annual precipitation 1.03 (1.02–1.04) <0.001 1.02 (1.03–1.04) <0.001
Average annual minimum temperature     
<median of 22.1°C Ref - Ref  
>median of 22.1°C 0.43 (0.39–0.48) <0.001 0.61 (0.55–0.68) <0.001
Average annual maximum temperature     
<median of 33.6°C Ref - - -
>median of 33.6°C 2.15 (1.96–2.36) <0.001 - -
Distance to water features (km) 1.04 (1.01–1.07) 0.005 0.84 (0.81–0.87) <0.001
Survey month     
   February Ref - - -
   March 3.57 (3.25–3.92) <0.001 7.62 (6.30–9.22) <0.001
   May 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 0.194 6.03 (4.68,7.79) <0.001
   June 0.73 (0.65–0.82) <0.001 1.71 (1.43–2.04) 0.001
   November 0.18 (0.14–0.24) <0.001 0.33 (0.25–0.45) <0.001
   December 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 0.056 1.62 (1.41–1.87) <0.001
  1. Ref = reference or base outcome