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Table 7 Insecticide cross-resistance spectra and prevalence of resistance mechanisms in different An. culicifacies populations.

From: Multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms involving metabolic changes and insensitive target sites selected in anopheline vectors of malaria in Sri Lanka

  DDT Pro Mal Fen λ-cy Per Del Cyp Cyf Eto CE GST Mono aAChE MCE
Anuradhapura RR SS RR RS SS RS SS SS SS RS + ++ + ++ ++
Kurunegala RR SS SS SS SS RS SS SS SS RS + ++ + + -
Moneragala RR SS RR RS SS RS RS SS SS RS + + + + ++
Puttalam RR SS RR SS SS RS SS SS SS RS ++ ++ + ++ ++
Trincomalee RR SS RR RS SS RR RS SS SS RS + +++ ++ ++ +++
  1. SS = susceptible (< 10 R)
  2. RS = intermediate (10–50% R)
  3. RR = resistant (> .50% R) (According to Herath, 1997)
  4. Pro = propoxur
  5. Mal = malathion
  6. Fen = fenitrothion
  7. λ-cy = λ-cyhalothrin
  8. Del = deltamethrin
  9. Per = permethrin
  10. Cyp = cypermethrin
  11. Cyf = cyfluthrin
  12. Eto = etofenprox
  13. CE = carboxylesterase
  14. GST = glutathione S-transferase
  15. Mono = monooxygenase
  16. MCE = malathion carboxylesterase
  17. aAChE = altered acetylcholinesterase
  18. + = mechanism present at low level, ++ = mechanism present at moderate level, +++ = mechanism present at high level - = absence of mechanism