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Table 1 Benefit/cost ratio (BCR) documented in the literature for eradication and control programmes.

From: Malaria eradication: the economic, financial and institutional challenge

Source Country Focus of study Design BCR
Barlow and Grobar (1986) [45] quoting Sudan (1975) [46] Sudan Control programme No information 4.6
Cohn (1973) [19] India Anti-malarial programmes Comparison of expenditure on control and eradication phases NA
Griffith et al. (1971) [47] Thailand Chemopro-phylaxis Comparison of benefits in terms of increased tungsten ore production and costs of chemoprophylaxis 6.5
Khan (1966) [48] Pakistan Cost of malaria Estimated direct and indirect costs of malaria compared to cost of eradication programme 4.9
Livanadas and Athanassatos (1963) [49] Greece Eradication Likely benefits due to morbidity and mortality avoided and, hence, improved agricultural output and economic performance and treatment costs avoided compared to eradication costs 17.3
Mills (1993) [16] Nepal Eradication Retrospective analysis comparing costs of control with likely gains from economic development Not calculated
Mills and Shillcutt (2004) [6] Sub-Saharan Africa Intensified control Estimates of macro-economic benefits from (1) Gallup and Sachs and (2) McCarthy et al compared to control costs 4.7 (1) 1.9 (2)
Mills and Shillcutt (2004) [6] Sub-Saharan Africa Intensified control through package of interventions Micro-economic analysis based on CEA evidence; costs compared to benefits estimated by valuing averted DALYs 17.1
Najera et al*(1993) [50] Sri Lanka Eradication Macro-economic model of economy, tracing impact of control of malaria 146
Niazi (1969) [51] Iraq Eradication Estimated direct and indirect costs of malaria compared to cost of eradication programme 6
Ortiz (1968) [52] Paraguay Eradication Cost of eradication compared to estimated agricultural productivity gains 2.5–3.6
Ramaiah (1980) [53] India Control programme Actual expenditure on control and eradication compared with likely economic benefits (reduction in direct and indirect costs) 2.4
Ruberu (1977) [20] Sri Lanka Intensive control aimed at eradication versus long-term control Likely costs of eradication compared to direct and indirect costs of malaria NA
  1. *BCR calculated by [45] using data from [23]. NA: not applicable. Source: adapted and updated from [4].