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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and delivery units

From: Burden of malaria in pregnancy in Jharkhand State, India

Characteristic Antenatal clinics
n= 2386
Delivery units
n= 718
  n (%) n (%)
Age (years)   
   <20 305 (12.8%) 67 (9.3%)
   20-34 1,978 (82.9%) 614 (85.5%)
   ≥35 103 (4.3%) 37 (5.2%)
Prior pregnancies   
   Primigravid 875 (36.7%) 306 (42.6%)
   Secundigravid 628 (26.3%) 174 (24.2%)
   Multigravid* 882 (37.0%) 238 (33.2%)
Gestational age at enrollment (weeks)**   
   < 20 weeks 1,104 (46.3%) n/a
   20-36 weeks 1,239 (51.9%) 42 (7.1%)
   ≥ 37 weeks 43 (1.8%) 637 (92.9%)
Caste   
   Schedule caste 234 (9.8%) 74 (10.3%)
   General caste 678 (28.4%) 189 (26.3%)
   Other backward caste 683 (28.7%) 192 (26.8%)
   Scheduled tribal 789 (33.1%) 263 (36.6%)
Education   
   No formal schooling 621 (26.0%) 217 (30.2%)
   Attended school any length of time 1,764 (74.0%) 501 (69.8%)
Socioeconomic characteristics   
   Owns TV 1,196 (50.1%) 293 (40.8%)
   Owns bicycle 1,635 (68.5%) 512 (71.3%)
   Owns house 1,751 (73.4%) 585 (81.5%)
   Owns refrigerator 104 (4.4%) 16 (2.2%)
   Roof material   
Mud 1,317 (55.2%) 482 (67.1%)
Corrugated iron/asbestos sheet 699 (29.3%) 149 (20.8%)
Cement/concrete 350 (14.7%) 82 (11.4%)
Other 20 (0.8%) 5 (0.7%)
   Wall material   
Mud/sand/dung 1,193 (50.0%) 452 (63.0%)
Mud bricks 131 (5.5%) 33 (4.6%)
Cement bricks 1,008 (42.2%) 212 (29.5%)
Other 54 (2.3%) 21 (2.9%)
   Primary cooking fuel   
Wood 1,428 (59.9%) 502 (69.9%)
Charcoal 441 (18.5%) 107 (14.9%)
Gas 480 (20.1%) 95 (13.2%)
Other 37 (1.5%) 14 (2.0%)
  1. Numbers may not add to sample size secondary to missing data.
  2. * Defined as 3 or more pregnancies
  3. ** For ANC enrollees, gestational age assessed by fundal height. For DU enrollees, gestational age was assessed by Ballard score. Infants that were stillborn did not have a Ballard examination performed.