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Table 4 Comparative LOD results of Microscopy, ICTs and RTPCR performed on blood specimens from representative (n = 3 per species) patient specimens for each malaria species.

From: Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

Species % Parasitaemia Distribution Microscopy BINAXNOW CARESTART QPCR
P. falciparum 1 Parasitaemia 5.6%     
     88.2% Single Rings 1.00E-03 1.00E-04 1.00E-03 1.00E-05
     11.8% Double Rings     
P. falciparum Parasitaemia 0.6%     
     100% Single Rings 1.00E-02 1.00E-03 1.00E-03 1.00E-04
P. falciparum 3 Parasitaemia 22.1%     
     86.8% Single Rings 1.00E-02 1.00E-04 1.00E-04 1.00E-05
     13.2% Double Rings     
P. vivax 1 Parasitaemia 0.474%     
     19.1% single rings ND 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-05
     57.4% growing trophozoites     
     19.1% mature trophozoites     
     4.2% gametocytes     
P. vivax 2 Parasitaemia 0.728%     
     54.7% rings ND 1.00E-01 1.00E-02 1.00E-05
     45.3% growing trophozoites     
P. vivax 3 Parasitaemia 0.061%     
     70% growing trophozoites ND 1.00E+00 1.00E-01 1.00E-03
     15% mature trophozoites     
     15% gametocytes     
P. malariae 1 Parasitaemia 0.06%     
     25% growing trophs ND 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E-04
     57.1% mature trophs     
     3.6% mature schizonts     
     7.1% immature schizonts     
     7.1% gametocytes     
P. malariae 2 Parasitaemia 0.10%     
     11.1% rings ND 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E-04
     50% growing trophozoites     
     13.9% mature trophozoites     
     2.8% immature schizonts     
     5.6% mature schizonts     
     16.7% gametocytes     
P. malariae 3 Parasitaemia 0.0614%     
     11.1% rings ND 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E-03
     44.4% growing trophozoites     
     14.8% immature schzionts     
     11.1% mature trophozoites     
     18.5% gametocytes     
P. ovale 1 Parasitaemia 0.167%     
     3% rings ND undetectable 1.00E+00 1.00E-04
     94% growing trophozoites     
     3% mature schizonts     
P. ovale 2 Parasitaemia 0.219%     
     11.4% rings ND 1.00E+00 1.00E+00 1.00E-05
     85.7% growing trophozoites     
     2.8% gametocytes     
P. ovale 3 Parasitaemia 0.009%     
     100% growing trophozoites ND undetectable undetectable 1.00E-03
  1. Values reflect the tenfold dilution level from the original sample.
  2. ND- not determined due to lack of unfrozen specimens for these species.