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Table 8 Abiotic and biotic characteristics of six habitat types surveyed for insect emergence (values represent means (95% CI) of all sampling events during the rainy season 2005)

From: Identifying the most productive breeding sites for malaria mosquitoes in The Gambia

  Water temperature (°C) Conductivity (μS/cm) Turbidity (NTU) Chironomida/m2/week Odonata & Coleoptera/m2/week Diversity
Index
Frequency of algae present in habitat (%)
Pools 33.2
(31.1–35.5)c
323
(227–874)a
204
(97–310)a,b
166
(125–212)a,b
1.18
(0.99–1.38)a
0.5
(0.44–0.56)a
69.9
Rice close to upland 28.9
(25.8–32.0)a,b
3138
(1990–4286)b
316
(133–500)a
334
(231–439)a
1.11
(0.90–1.32)a
0.36
(0.31–0.42)b
61.6
Rice far from upland 30.0
(28.0–32.0)b,c
2502
(915–4088)a,b
206
(108–305)a,b
58
(38–79)c
0.32
(0.21–0.44)b
0.40
(0.35–0.44)a,b
18.5
Edge floodwater 27.6
(25.9–29.4)a,b
2064
(1608–2519)a,b
76
(40–111)b
105
(75–134)b,c
0.31
(0.20–0.41)b
0.32
(0.28–0.35)b
21.7
River floodwater 28.7
(27.1–30.3)a,b
1472
(926–2019)a,b
72
(38–105)b
59
(46–70)c
0.21
(0.09–0.32)b
0.35
(0.31–0.38)b
10.9
Stream fringes 25.7
(23.8–27.5)a
7199
(5618–8778)c
102
(59–144)b
149
(117–181)a,b
0.41
(0.31–0.51)b
0.33
(0.29–0.37)b
47.4
ANOVA/χ2 F(2,125) =
6.672,
p < 0.001
F(5,119) =
20.65,
p < 0.001
F(5,103) =
4.627,
p = 0.001
F(5,709) =
12.735,
p < 0.001
F(5,709) =
35.205,
p < 0.001
F(5,709) =
8.090,
p < 0.001
χ2 = 151.1, df = 5,
p < 0.001
  1. Different letters indicate significance (p < 0.05) based on Gabriel post-hoc test for ANOVA, insect density was log transformed;
  2. Chi2 test was used for comparing the proportion of time algae were found in a habitat type