A haplotype network using mitochondrial genome of P. vivax populations. A haplotype network inferred by a median-joining method, using the 293 mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences of P. vivax populations of which 11 are South Korean isolates (present study) and the other 282 are worldwide isolates that were deposited the GenBank database [16–18]. The size of the each circle represents the frequencies of the haplotype, with each color showing the geographical origin of the isolates. Green indicates isolates from South Korea (present study) and dark green indicates North Korea (the GenBank database). Red indicates isolates from southern China. Blue indicates isolates from Indonesia. Gray indicates isolates from Thailand, Vietnam and Bangladesh. White indicates isolates from Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Black indicates isolates from India, Pakistan and Iran. Yellow indicates isolates from Central and South America. Light blue indicates isolates from Africa. No. 1 and 2 in the group B complex indicate isolates from South Korea (the first imported case into Japan from South Korea) and an isolate from North Korea, respectively.