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Table 2 Reported and observed net coverage during the 2004 and 2005 surveys by district.

From: Impact of mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets on childhood malaria morbidity: The Togo National Integrated Child Health Campaign

  Pooleda Southern Coastal plaina (Yoto) Central Plateaux (Ogou) Northern Savannah (Tone)
2004 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005 2004 2005
Community level HH estimate b
N 2250 2402 750 789 750 808 750 805
Own ITN, % 0.03 59.7*** 0.4 55.2 0.3 58.6 0.3 70.1
Hung ITN, % - 45.7*** - 34.5 - 44.1 - 67.2
Target group Household level
N 1749 1791 502 648 567 594 645 586
Own any net, % 9.5** 76.5*** 11.6 67.4 12.7 75.0 5.0 87.9
Own ITN, % c 0.4 73.6*** 0.6 65.6 0.4 69.8 0.3 86.3
Hung ITN, % d - 58.3*** - 43.1 - 52.8 - 82.3
Hung >1 ITN, % d - 19.3*** - 6.9 - 12.1 - 40.0
# ITNs per householde
>1 ITN, HHs 2 children, n(%) - 200 (57.5)*** - 50 (46.3) - 46 (46.5) - 14 (73.8)
>1 ITN, HHs >2 children, n(%) - 51 (81.0) - 16 (80.0) - 14 (63.3) - 21 (100)
Child net use previous night
N 2521 2813 781 998 798 893 942 922
Rep Any net use, % 6.2** 71.4*** 7.5 59.1 9.9 66.3 2.1 89.7
Rep ITN use, %f 0.4 69.2*** 0.7 57.1 0.3 62.7 0.2 88.6
   Age <18mo, no target 0.2 59.7 0.5 45.7 0 55.5 0 78.8
   Age ≥18mo, target 0.5 74.0 0.7 63.0 0.4 66.2 0.3 93.4
Rep ITN use + hanging, %g - 53.2*** - 35.9 - 43.8 - 80.6
   Age <18mo, no target   49.3***   27.5   38.7   70.1
   Age ≥18mo, target   60.2***   40.3   46.4   85.7
ITN use by SES         
   Wealthiest quintile, % - 45.7*** - 36.3 - 34.2 - 76.3
   Poorest quintile, % - 52.7*** - 36.6 - 44.7 - 80.2
  1. HH = Household, ITN = Insecticide Treated Nets; SES = Socio-Economic Status; Rep = reported; mo = months
  2. a Weighted analysis of 2004 Yoto data takes into account the variability of the enumeration area cluster size during the first 3 survey days (Crude number of households = 543); b These estimates are based on the household coverage survey that visited all selected households independent of the presence of children; c 2004 data reported by caretaker, 2005 data based on direct observation at home visit (n households = 1791, n children = 2751 of 2813); d 2004 data not collected, 2005 data based on direct observation; e Based on reported number of campaign nets received by households with >=2 children targeted by the campaign, i.e. >=18mo of age at time of 2005 survey (Yoto n = 128, Ogou n = 121, Tone n = 162); f "ITN use" was defined as a positive answer at the time of the morbidity survey in a central location to the question 'did this person sleep under an ITN last night?'; g "ITN hanging" was defined as a positive answer at during the home visit from the GPS team to the question whether a net was hanging. At this time, where people allowed, staff visually confirmed that an ITN was tied over a sleeping space, even if the net was folded above the bed. ** Differences between districts P < 0.001; *** Differences between districts = p < 0.0001.