Average parasitemias (A) and survival (B) of C57BL/6 mice infected with PbAus and administered artemisone or chloroquine monotherapy, or combination therapy. The efficiency of artemisone-chloroquine combination therapy, to prevent the cerebral symptoms and achieve complete parasite clearance, was examined. Mice were treated on days 7-9 post-inoculation (n = 7 mice per group); control mice (n = 10) were administered saline. On day 19 post-inoculation, 2 control mice had not yet succumbed to the disease, vs. 6 mice administered chloroquine monotherapy, and 7 mice in each of the remaining treated groups. Although delayed mortality was seen in all treated groups (p < 0.05), chloroquine or artemisone monotherapy did not lead to complete cure. In contrast, all but one mouse treated by combination therapy were completely cured.*p < 0.001, all groups. **p < 0.05, control vs. monotherapy groups. #p < 0.05, monotherapy vs. combination therapy groups. Arrows represent injections. Average values ± SD (error bars) are presented.