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Table 1 Characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum smear-positive participants at the 2007 survey in western Kenya, by study area

From: Assessment of molecular markers for anti-malarial drug resistance after the introduction and scale-up of malaria control interventions in western Kenya

Characteristic Asembo (n = 61) Gem (n = 97) Karemo (n = 95) p-value a
Male sex 32/61 (53) 47/96 (49) 43/91 (46) 0.75
Age, years     
≤5 24/61 (39) 40/97 (41) 40/95 (42) 0.94
6-15 37/61 (61) 57/97(59) 55/95 (58)
Anaemic, Hb < 11 g/dL 24 (39) 33 (34) 46 (48) 0.12
Parasite density, geometric mean, per uL (95% CI)b 548 (351–935) 513 (374–750) 704 (488–1,091) 0.54
Gametocytes present 9/61 (15) 19/97 (20) 12/95 (13) 0.40
Fever in last two weeks 31/61 (51) 62/95 (64) 47/95 (50) 0.088
Fever in last 24 hours 9/59 (15) 20/95 (21) 34/95 (36) 0.0083*
Drug taken for feverc     
Coartem 1/31 (3) 1/61 (2) 0/47 (0) --
Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine 4/31 (13) 2/61 (3) 2/47 (4) 0.20
Antifolated 7/31(23) 4/61 (7) 3/47 (6) 0.055
Chloroquine 2/31 (7) 3/61 (5) 0/47 (0) --
Amodiaquine 4/31 (13) 5/61 (8) 2/47 (4) 0.37
Other (non-anti-malarial) 24/31(77) 38/61 (62) 28/47 (60) 0.24
Bed net usage     
Anye (treated or untreated) 31/61 (51) 42/95 (44) 19/95 (20) <0.0001*
ITNf 30/61 (49) 29/95 (31) 7/95 (7) <0.0001*
  1. Note. Data are proportion (%) of P. falciparum smear-positive participants with molecular data, unless otherwise indicated.
  2. Hb, haemoglobin; CI, confidence interval; ITN, insecticide-treated bed net.
  3. aDerived from overall Chi-square or Fisher’s exact (where expected cell counts were below 5) test for categorical variables or analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous, normally distributed variables.
  4. bAsexual parasite density and the presence of gametocytes were detected by microscopy. Parasite density was log transformed prior to statistical analysis.
  5. cSelf-reported drug use was asked for participants who reported being febrile in the two weeks prior to the survey; participant may have taken multiple drugs to treat fever.
  6. dSulphadoxine-pyrimethamine or Septrin (cotrimoxazole). eReported sleeping under a bed net the night prior to survey.
  7. fITN use among participants who reported sleeping under a bed net the night prior to survey.
  8. *P <0.05, statistically significant.