Frequencies of CD8
Tem cells following RAS immunization of C57BL/6j mice under CQ cover. Percentages of CD8+ T cells with effector memory phenotype (CD44+CD62L− Tem) were measured one day before challenge by direct ex vivo staining in the liver (A) and spleen (B) of RAS immunized mice (filled squares), RAS immunized and CQ treated mice (open squares), naïve mice (filled circles) and naïve-CQ mice (open circles). Horizontal lines represent group medians. NS = not significant.