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Table 1 Challenges and risks encountered in vector control and recommendations for improvement in Namibia

From: Strengthening tactical planning and operational frameworks for vector control: the roadmap for malaria elimination in Namibia

Challenges and risks encountered Recommendations for improvement
Minimal data is available on susceptibility testing in all malarious regions, small number of sentinel sites and limited mapping data of malaria vector species Establishing an efficient system of sentinel sites to support monitoring of vector density, infectivity, bionomics and insecticide resistance to guide informed decision-making
The possibility of change in behaviour of An. arabiensis from indoor resting to outdoor resting in response to indoor spraying, and a change in daily pattern of biting and host choice in response to ITNs or infectivity rates Integrated strategies with actions aiming to reduce the selection pressure thus preventing or delaying resistance development, and aiming to reduce dependency on chemical insecticides for vector control
Inconsistent community sensitization and low compliance with existing interventions and insufficient community ownership and involvement in malaria vector control activities Improve information, education and behavioural change communication on vector control interventions and reinforce community engagement and empowerment for participation to successfully implement malaria vector control
Limited support institutions with requisite infrastructure to support entomological research; minimal research and academic institutions to build capacity of sufficient and technically sound personnel and the likely hold of resistance development in major malaria vectors to insecticides Establish a multi-disciplinary national IRM decision-making body coordinated by the NVDCP, and the inherent partner commitment and collaboration required to strengthen entomological laboratory and operations research and implement rational IRM strategies
Absence of comprehensive malaria transmission data and minimal utilization of existing entomological data for decision making for vector control Improve vector surveillance, collect entomological data and strengthen operational research and monitoring and evaluation to guide the scale up of interventions
Lack of stakeholders alliance for effective reporting of insecticides used for diseases vector control particularly DDT Establish stakeholders’ alliance and develop agreed upon roles and responsibilities and standardized format for compilation and reporting on DDT to the focal person of the Secretariat of the Stockholm Convention
Non existence of data management for quantities and total cost of insecticide used and cost of spraying cycle for each year to facilitate decision making for vector control Establish and operationalize a comprehensive entomological database at national level and incorporate record keeping and reporting in training curriculum and courses on IRS and other vector control operations
Weak infrastructure (sentinel sites and laboratory and insectary facilities), technical and human resource capacity for entomology laboratory at the established sentinel sites Seek technical assistance to support entomological surveillance, particularly for capacity building in vector-bionomics and insecticide resistance to operationalize the implementation of the GPIRM
Human, financial and logistic resources/capacity to implement, monitor and evaluate IVM is still minimal In-service training for the entomological laboratory staff in malaria entomology and vector control should be considered will be critical for sustained evidence decision making in the regions