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Table 4 Impact of Vernonia amygdalina leaf methanolic extract and derived phases on the development of early sporogonic stages

From: Plasmodium transmission blocking activities of Vernonia amygdalina extracts and isolated compounds

Test agents Experimenta Mean ESS (95% CI)b Percentage inhibition of ESS (95% CI)
Ver-MeOH 1 13 (9–18) 51.0 (34.2–67.8)
2 4 (3–6) 68.3 (58.7–77.9)
3 41 (34–47) 57.5 (50.6–64.4)
4 105 (92–118) 51.9 (45.9–57.9)
5 57 (47–66) 57.9 (50.9–64.9)
Phases from methanolic extract
 Water 1 13 (7–20) 51.0 (26.6–75.4)
2 5 (2–7) 65.9 (46.7–85.0)
3 8 (0–8) 91.6 (86.2–97.1)
4 115 (76–154) 47.5 (29.8–65.1)
5 76 (59–93) 43.6 (31–56.1)
 Ethylacetate 1 11 (10–13) 58.3 (52.0–64.7)
2 4 (2–5) 73.2 (60.5–85.8)
3 20 (15–25) 79.1 (73.7–84.5)
4 76 (40–112) 65.4 (49.0–81.9)
5 48 (37–59) 64.1 (55.9–72.3)
 Butanol 1 1 (0–3) 95.1 (88.7–100)
2 1 (1–2) 90.2 (85.5–95.0)
3 2 (1–4) 97.6 (95.8–99.4)
4 15 (7–22) 93.3 (89.9–96.7)
5 18 (14–23) 86.4 (82.9–89.9)
Solvent control (0.2% DMSO) 1 27 (22–33)  
2 14 (9–19)  
3 96 (85–106)  
4 219 (198–240)  
5 135 (111–158)  
  1. Methanolic V. amygdalina leaf extract and its butanol, ethylacetate and water phases were tested at 50 µg/mL.
  2. Data are presented as mean counts of early sporogonic stages (ESS) calculated from triplicate wells and percentages of ESS inhibition referred to solvent control. Both parameters are presented with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI).
  3. Ver-MeOH methanolic extract of V. amygdalina leaves.
  4. aEach number represents one experiment conducted with gametocytaemic blood from a different mouse.
  5. bMean ESS counts are rounded to the nearest whole number.