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Table 2 Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection and parasite density at first antenatal care visit by gravidity among pregnant women of Nchelenge District in Zambia

From: High burden of malaria infection in pregnant women in a rural district of Zambia: a cross-sectional study

Infection and detection method All
% (95 % CI, n/N) or
n, meana (95 % CI)
Primigravidae
% (n/N) or
n, meana (95 % CI)
Secundigravidae
% (n/N) or
n, meana (95 % CI)
Multigravidae
% (n/N) or
n, meana (95 % CI)
P value
HIV
Rapid tests
(Determine® HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™)
13.2 (11.3–15.3, 143/1084) 8.0 (21/261) 13.9 (23/165) 15.1 (99/658) 0.018
Malaria
PCR
57.8 (54.9–60.8, 621/1074) 68.7 (178/259) 61.8 (102/165) 52.5 (341/650) <0.001
Malaria
Microscopyb
31.8 (29.1–34.6, 343/1079) 51.0 (132/259) 37.0 (61/165) 22.9 (150/656) <0.001
Parasite density (geometric mean) 343, 1082 (962–1217) 132, 1378 (1133–1677) 61, 1164 (897–1509) 150, 848 (714–1010) <0.001
  1. Of the expected samples from 1085 participants, 1074 were processed by PCR and 1079 by microscopy due to missing samples
  2. 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, PCR polymerase chain reaction
  3. aGeometric mean
  4. bOf the 343 malaria positive samples detected by microscopy seven were found negative by PCR specific for Plasmodium falciparum detection