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Table 3 Characteristics of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women of Nchelenge district in Zambia

From: High burden of malaria infection in pregnant women in a rural district of Zambia: a cross-sectional study

Variable All (N = 1084)
n (%) or n, median (IQR) or
n, mean (95 % CI)
HIV-uninfected (n = 941)
n (%) or median (IQR) or
n, mean (95 % CI)
HIV-infected (n = 143)
n (%)or n, median (IQR) or
n, mean (95 % CI)
P value
Recruitment site
 Kashikishi 746 (68.8) 643 (68.3) 103 (72.0) 0.374
 Nchelenge 338 (31.2) 298 (31.7) 40 (28.0)  
Age (median) 25 (20–30) 24 (20–30) 27 (22–32) <0.001
Gravidity
 Primigravidae 261 (24.1) 240 (25.5) 21 (14.7) 0.018
 Secundigravidae 165 (15.2) 142 (15.1) 23 (16.1)  
 Multigravidae 658 (60.7) 559 (59.4) 99 (69.2)  
Bed net ownership
 No 550 (50.7) 472 (50.2) 78 (54.6) 0.328
 Yes 534 (49.3) 469 (49.8) 65 (45.5)  
Bed net usage on previous night
 No 665 (61.5) 563 (60.0) 102 (71.8) 0.007
 Yes 416 (38.5) 376 (40.0) 40 (28.8)  
Missinga 3 2 3  
IRS in last 12 months
 No 665 (61.5) 563 (59.9) 102 (71.8) 0.628
 Yes 416 (38.5) 376 (40.0) 40 (28.2)  
 Unknown 51 46 5  
Wealth index
 Lowest 217 (20.1) 193 (20.6) 24 (16.8) 0.863
 Second 220 (20.3) 191 (20.3) 29 (20.3)  
 Middle 214 (19.8) 183 (19.5) 31 (21.7)  
 Fourth 215 (19.9) 185 (19.7) 30 (20.9)  
 Highest 216 (20.0) 187 (19.9) 29 (20.3)  
 Missinga 2 2 0  
Malaria infection PCR
 Negative 453 (42.2) 405 (43.3) 48 (34.8) 0.059
 Positive 621 (57.8) 531 (56.7) 90 (65.2)  
 Missinga 10 5 5  
Microscopy
 Negative 736 (68.2) 645 (68.7) 91 (65.0) 0.382
 Positive 343 (31.8) 294 (31.3) 49 (35.0)  
 Missinga 5 2 3  
Parasite density (geometric mean) 343, 1082 (962–1217) 294, 990 (876–1120) 49, 1836 (1306–2581) <0.001
  1. IQR Interquartile range, IRS indoor residual spraying
  2. aMissing values are only presented as numbers and were not included in the calculation of percentages and in the Chi-squared test for association