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Table 2 Summary of the results from longitudinal studies with anthropometric measures as exposures and malaria-related outcomes

From: Association between anthropometry-based nutritional status and malaria: a systematic review of observational studies

Identification Country Age group/follow-up time Plasmodium species Sample size Exposure (undernutrition) Outcome Effect measure/intensity Result Covariates tested or adjusted
Pazzaglia et al. [28] Vietnam Follow-up of 28 days P. falciparum   Grams/day   Multiple regression   Age, race, total duration of infection, duration of primary attack, pre-patent period, incubation period, peak of fever
     58 Increment on weight Time to peak parasite density NI (p = 0.050) Protection  
     42 Increment on weight Time to peak gametocytaemia NI (p = 0.050) Risk  
Snow et al. [29] Gambia 1 to 4 years (Follow-up of 4 months) P. falciparum   Z-score (mean with SD) (NCHS, 1977)   “t” Test (mean z-score at baseline anthropometry)   None
     138 H/A Incidence (clinical malaria vs no malaria) −0.96 vs −0.89 No association  
     138 W/H Incidence (clinical malaria vs no malaria) −1.03 vs −1.18 No association  
     138 W/A Incidence (clinical malaria vs no malaria) −1.39 vs −1.47 No association  
     34 H/A Incidence (asymptomatic malaria vs no malaria) −0.97 vs −0.89 No association  
     34 W/H Incidence (asymptomatic malaria vs no malaria) −0.96 vs −1.18 No association  
     34 W/A Incidence (asymptomatic malaria vs no malaria) −1.35 vs −1.47 No association  
     59 H/A High parasite density in clinical malaria (≥5000/µL) −1.03 vs −0.94 No association  
     59 W/H High parasite density in clinical malaria (≥5000/µL) −1.32 vs −0.91 No association  
     59 W/A High parasite density in clinical malaria (≥5000/µL) −1.67 vs −1.28 No association  
     15 H/A High parasite density on asymptomatic infection (≥5000/µL) −1.84 vs −0.81 No association  
     15 W/H High parasite density on asymptomatic infection (≥5000/µL) −0.89 vs −1.06 No association  
     15 W/A High parasite density on asymptomatic infection (≥5000/µL) −1.34 vs −1.36 No association  
Van den Broeck et al. [21] Congo <5 years P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   None
     64 H/A Mortality (3 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 W/H Mortality (3 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 W/A Mortality (3 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 AC/A Mortality (3 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 H/A Mortality (3–30 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 W/H Mortality (3–30 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 W/A Mortality (3–30 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
     64 AC/A Mortality (3–30 months follow up) NI (NS) No association  
Genton et al. [22] Papua New Guinea 11 months to 11 years P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   OR   Age, duration of symptoms, temperature, pulse rate, respiratory rate, parasite density, glycaemia, haemoglobin, maematocri, white cell count
     121 W/A Mortality (cerebral malaria) 0.98 (0.65–1.49) No association  
Olumese et al. [7] Nigeria 1 to 5 years P. falciparum   Percentile ≤80 % (NCHS, 1977)   Fisher’s exact test   None
     57 W/A Death or recover with neurological deficit on cerebral malaria NI (p = 0.037) Risk  
Renaudin et al. [20] Chad <5 years P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   X2 (Chi-square)   None
     227 W/H Mortality NI (NS) No association  
Williams et al. [30] Vanuatu <10 years P. falciparum/P. vivax   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   None
     702 W/H Incidence (P. falciparum NI (NS) No association  
     702 W/A Incidence (P. falciparum 1.1 (0.57–2.1) No association  
     702 W/H Incidence (P.vivax ) NI (NS) No association  
     702 W/A Incidence (P.vivax ) 2.6 (1.5–4.4) Risk  
Man et al. [2] Gambia <5 years P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   None
     5,620 W/A Mortality NI (S) Risk  
     1,292 W/A Cerebral malaria NI (S) Risk  
     1,473 W/A Malarial anaemia NI (S) Risk  
Genton et al. [16] Papua New Guinea 10 months to 10 years P. falciparum/ vivax/malariae   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   Age, bednet use
     136 H/A Incidence (P. spp.) 1.1 (0.97–1.24) No association  
     136 W/H Incidence (P. spp.) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) No association  
     136 H/A Incidence (P. falciparum ) 1.13 (0.98–1.29) No association  
     136 W/H Incidence (P. falciparum) 0.92 (0.77–1.11) No association  
     136 H/A High parasite density (P. falciparum≥5,000/µL) 1.19 (1.01–1.40) Protection  
     136 W/H High parasite density (P. falciparum≥5,000/µL) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) No association  
     136 H/A High parasite density (P. falciparum≥10,000/µL) 1.18 (0.98–1.41) No association  
     136 W/H High parasite density (P. falciparum≥10,000/µL) 0.97 (0.75–1.24) No association  
     136 H/A Incidence (P. vivax) 0.96 (0.73–1.25) No association  
     136 W/H Incidence (P. vivax) 0.95 (0.70–1.28) No association  
     136 H/A Incidence (P.malariae) 0.83 (0.44–1.57) No association  
     136 W/H Incidence (P.malariae) 0.90 (0.49–1.63) No association  
Schellenberg et al. [31] Tanzania <4 years (Follow-up of 1 year) P. falciparum   Percentile ≤25 (NCHS, 1977)   OR   None
     651 W/A (1-7 months) Mortality 3.2 (1.2–8.9) Risk  
     1,620 W/A (8 months–4 years) Mortality 3 (1.5–6.2) Risk  
      Percentile >25–50 (NCHS, 1977)     
     651 W/A (1–7 months) Mortality 2.6 (1–6.9) No association  
     651 W/A (8 months–4 years) Mortality 1.9 (0.8–4.2) No association  
Tonglet et al. [32] Congo <2 years (Follow-up of 3 months) P. falciparum 842 Median <25 (NCHS, 1977) <9 months   OR   Age, gender, time of enrolment, malaria during preceding month, diet, adequate growth as judged by care-taker
     842 H/A Incidence 1.16 (0.54–1.77) No association  
     842 H/A increment Incidence 1.53 (0.95–2.11) No association  
     842 W/A Incidence 1.31 (0.68–1.94) No association  
     842 W/A increment Incidence 1.05 (0.40–1.69) No association  
     842 AC/A Incidence 2.32 (1.68–2.97) Risk  
     842 AC/A increment Incidence 0.98 (0.35–1.60) No association  
      Median <25 (NCHS, 1977) ≥9 months     
     842 H/A Incidence 0.71 (0.28–1.14) No association  
     842 H/A increment Incidence 0.74 (0.31–1.16) No association  
     842 W/A Incidence 0.68 (0.24–1.11) No association  
     842 W/A increment Incidence 0.70 (0.28–1.13) No association  
     842 AC/A Incidence 0.97 (0.54–1.40) No association  
     842 AC/A increment Incidence 1.10 (0.68–1.51) No association  
Deen et al. [33] Gambia <5 years (Follow-up of 20 weeks) P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   Age, gender, ethnicity
     487 H/A Incidence 1.35 (1.08–1.69) Risk  
     487 W/H Incidence 0.87 (0.69–1.10) No association  
     487 W/A Incidence 1.01 (0.82–1.26) No association  
Muller et al. [34] Burkina Faso 6 to 30 months (Follow-up of 6 months) P. falciparum   Z-score (≤−2) (NCHS, 1977)   RR   Age, gender, bednet use, socioeconomic status, ethnicity
     685 H/A Incidence 1 (0.9–1.1) No association  
     685 W/H Incidence 1 (0.9–1.1) No association  
     685 W/A Incidence 1 (0.9–1.2) No association  
     685 H/A High parasite density (≥5,000/µL) 1 (0.9–1.2) No association  
     685 W/H High parasite density (≥5,000/µL) 1 (0.9–1.2) No association  
     685 W/A High parasite density (≥5,000/µL) 1 (0.9–1.2) No association  
     685 H/A High parasite density (≥10,000/µL) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) No association  
     685 W/H High parasite density (≥10,000/µL) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) No association  
     685 W/A High parasite density (≥10,000/µL) 1 (0.5–1.8) No association  
Mockenhaupt et al. [35] Ghana 6 months to 9 years P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977)   OR   Age, gender, shock, respiratory distress, haemoglobinuria, multiple convulsions, severe anemia, jaundice, prostration, cerebral malaria, impaired consciousness, hyperlactataemia hyperparasitaemia hypoglycaemia, hyperpyrexia
     285 W/H Mortality (severe malaria) 2.8 (1.1–7.0) Risk  
Nyakeriga et al. [36] Kenia 28 to 60 months (Follow-up of 1 year and 5 months) P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (NCHS, 1977) Incidence RR   Age, ethnicity, season, haemoglobin genotype
     341 H/A Incidence 1.09 (0.92–1.28) No association  
     341 W/A Incidence 0.96 (0.78–1.19) No association  
Danquah et al. [37] Ghana 3 months to 2 years (Follow-up of 1 year and 9 months) P. falciparum   Z-score (≤−2) (WHO, 2006)   RR   Season, food availability
     1,200 H/A, L/A, W/H and W/A combined index Incidence (non-severe malaria) NI (NS) No association  
     1,200 H/A, L/A, W/H and W/A combined index Incidence (assymptomatic malaria) NI (NS) No association  
Fillol et al. [17] Senegal 12 to 70 months (Follow-up of 25 weeks) P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006)   OR   Age, gender, site of residence, presumptive antimalarial treatment
     874 H/A Incidence NI (NS) No association  
     874 W/H Incidence 0.33 (0.13–0.81) Protection  
     874 W/A Incidence NI (NS) No association  
     874 H/A High parasite density (>300 parasites/µL) 2.42 (1.12–5.24) Risk  
     874 W/H High parasite density (>300 parasites/µL) 0.48 (0.04–5.34) No association  
     874 W/A High parasite density (>300 parasites/µL) 0.55 (0.35–2.66) No association  
Arinaitwe et al. [38] Uganda 6 weeks to 1 year (Follow-up of 1 year and 4 months) P. falciparum   Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006)   RR   Age, site of residence, chemoprophylaxis, breastfeeding, HIV status
     99 H/A Incidence 1.24 (1.03–1.48) Risk  
     99 W/A Incidence 1.12 (0.86–1.46) No association  
Mitangala et al. [15] Congo 6 to 59 months (Follow-up of 1 year) P. falciparum (99 %)/malariae/mixed malaria (P. falciparum + P. ovale)   Z-score (<−3) (WHO, 2006)   OR   Age, season
     790 H/A Incidence 1.21 (0.76–1.92) No association  
     790 W/H Incidence 1.46 (0.84–2.53) No association  
     790 W/A Incidence 1.13 (0.82–1.55) No association  
     790 AC Incidence 1.14 (0.71–1.83) No association  
     787 H/A Incidence (high parasite density -≥5000/µL) 0.48 (0.25–0.91) Protection  
     787 W/H Incidence (high parasite density -≥5000/µL) 0.87 (0.38–1.99) No association  
     787 W/A Incidence (high parasite density -≥5000/µL) 0.85 (0.53–1.35) No association  
     787 AC Incidence (high parasite density -≥5000/µL) 0.83 (0.44–1.55) No association  
Alexandre et al. [39] Brazil 1 month to 14 years (Follow-up of 12 months) P. vivax (72.6 %)/P. falciparum(22.5 %)/Mixed malaria P. vivax + P. falciparum(4.9 %)   Z-score (<−2) (WHO, 2006; WHO, 2007)   HR   Age, gender, maternal education, socioeconomic status
     202 H/A Incidence 0.31 (0.10–0.99) Protection  
  1. BMI body mass index, H/A height/age, W/H weight/height, W/A weight/age, AC/A arm circumference/age, L/A length/age, SD standard-deviation, NS non-significant, NI non-informed