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Table 3 Malaria mortality clustering using spatial and space–time analysis in Rufiji and Ifakara HDSS for the study period

From: Spatial and space–time clustering of mortality due to malaria in rural Tanzania: evidence from Ifakara and Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites

Cluster type Location Time frame Circle radius (km) LLR Observed cases Expected cases RR P value
Rufiji HDSS
 Spatial analysis
  Mostly likely Mtawanya, Kinyanya, Pagae, Mchukwi A, Kibiti A, Kibiti B, Nyambili, Nyamwimbe, Mchukwi B, Bungu B 2005 12.09 11.41 112 80.75 2.10 <0.001
  Mostly likely Pagae, Bungu A, Mtawanya, Nyambili, Mchukwi A, Bungu B, Kinyanya, Nyamwimbe, Mlanzi, Kibiti A, Nyambunda 2006 12.16 7.83 111 82.13 1.71 <0.001
  Mostly likely Miwanga, Kimbuga, Ngulagula, Kibiti B, Kinyanya, Kibiti A, Mtawanya, Nyambunda, Mng’aru, Nyambili 2007 18.93 8.44 85 58.29 1.86 0.002
 Space time analysis
  Mostly time analysis Pagae, Bungu A, Mtawanya, Nyambili, Mchukwi A, Bungu B, Kinyanya, Nyamwimbe, Mlanzi, Kibiti A, Nyambunda, Kibiti B 1999–2002 12.43 28.530 536 391.44 1.46 <0.001
Ifakara HDSS (Kilombero)
 Spatial analysis
  Mostly likely Lukolongo, Mchombe 2008 4.41 4.562 35 21.3 1.87 0.046
 Space time analysis
  Mostly likely Ikule, Mkangawalo, Mngeta, Lukolongoni, mchombe 2007–2009 18.81 22.961 181 109.01 1.82 <0.001
Ifakara HDSS(Ulanga)
 Spatial analysis
  Mostly likely Igota, Lupiro, Kichangani 2010 3.30 5.302 27 14.96 2.30 0.023
  Mostly likely Kichangani 2012 0 4.255 9 3.03 3.44 0.045
 Space time analysis
  Mostly likely Igota, Lupiro, Kichangani, Igumbiro, Idunda 2007–2009 10.13 11.566 125 81.69 1.66 <0.001
  1. Mostly likely :primary cluster with highest likelihood; secondary cluster is the second cluster followed after mostly likely
  2. LLR Log likelihood ratio, RR relative risk