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Table 4 Associations of socioeconomic, clinical and behavioural responses with anaemia among 530 community survey participants in eastern Afghanistan

From: Towards a strategy for malaria in pregnancy in Afghanistan: analysis of clinical realities and women’s perceptions of malaria and anaemia

Variables Hb Anaemic, n (%) Non-anaemic, n (%) OR (95 % CI) AOR (95 % CI)
Mean ± SD (range) (N = 147) (N = 383)
Age
 15–20 11.4 ± 1.9 (7.3–19.3) 22 (15.0) 78 (20.4) Ref. Ref.
 21–30 11.0 ± 1.7 (6.5–17.5) 81 (55.1) 223 (58.2) 1.29 (0.75–2.20) 1.35 (0.71–2.57)
 31–45 10.7 ± 1.7 (6.5–15.5) 44 (29.9) 82 (21.4) 1.90 (1.05–3.46)* 1.89 (0.85–4.20)
Parity
 Nulli/primiparous (0–1 births) 11.1 ± 1.8 (6.8–17.5) 35 (23.8) 103 (27.0) Ref. Ref.
 Multiparous (2–5 births) 10.9 ± 1.7 (6.5–19.3) 76 (51.7) 187 (48.8) 1.20 (0.75–1.90) 0.99 (0.57–1.72)
 Grand-multiparous (6+ births) 10.9 ± 1.7 (6.5–14.7) 36 (24.5) 93 (24.3) 1.14 (0.67–1.96) 0.76 (0.38–1.52)
Trimester
 1st 10.9 ± 2.1 (8.0–14.0) 3 (2.0) 6 (1.58) Ref. Ref.
 2nd 11.3 ± 1.7 (7.0–17.5) 57 (38.8) 188 (49.1) 0.61 (0.15–2.50) 0.53 (0.12–2.41)
 3rd 10.7 ± 1.7 (6.5–19.3) 87 (59.2) 189 (49.4) 0.92 (0.22–3.77) 0.76 (0.17–3.41)
Malaria infection
 No 11.0 ± 1.7 (6.5–19.3) 147 (100) 381 (99.5)
 Yes 12.5 ± 1.4 (11.5–14) 0 (0) 2 (0.5)
Iron/folate usage
 No 10.9 ± 1.7 (6.5–19.3) 108 (73.5) 277 (72.3) Ref. Ref.
 Yes 11.1 ± 1.7 (6.7–15.5) 39 (26.5) 106 (27.7) 0.94 (0.61–1.44) 1.16 (0.73–1.84)
Antenatal attendance (at least once)
 No 11.0 ± 1.4 (6.9–17.5) 20 (13.6) 54 (14.1) Ref. Ref.
 Yes 11.0 ± 1.7 (6.5–19.3) 127 (86.4) 329 (85.9) 1.04 (0.60–1.81) 1.03 (0.57–1.87)
Household ITN ownership
 No 11.0 ± 1.8 (6.5–19.3) 91 (61.9) 240 (62.7) Ref. Ref.
 Yes 11.1 ± 1.7 (6.5–15.5) 56 (38.1) 143 (37.3) 1.03 (0.70–1.53) 1.74 (0.99–2.90)
Slept under ITN last night
 No 11.0 ± 1.4 (6.5–19.3) 134 (91.2) 357 (93.2) Ref. Ref.
 Yes 10.8 ± 1.4 (8.6–14.2) 13 (8.8) 26 (6.8) 1.33 (0.66–2.67) 1.71 (0.82–3.64)
Socioeconomic status
 1. Poorest 10.8 ± 1.9 (6.5–17.5) 47 (32.0) 86 (22.5) Ref. Ref.
 2. Poor 10.9 ± 1.8 (6.8–19.3) 35 (23.8) 97 (25.3) 0.66 (0.39–1.12) 0.72 (0.41–1.26)
 3. Less poor 10.9 ± 1.7 (6.5–14.3) 39 (26.5) 94 (24.5) 0.76 (0.45–1.27) 0.95 (0.53–1.71)
 4. Least poor 11.4 ± 1.6 (7.5–15.5) 26 (17.7) 106 (27.7) 0.45 (0.26–0.78)* 0.57 (0.29–1.10)
  1. * p < 0.05; AOR adjusted for survey, age, parity, trimester, SES, district; Cell sizes below 30 use exact logistic methods