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Table 3 The burden of emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases endemic in Eritrea

From: Consolidating strategic planning and operational frameworks for integrated vector management in Eritrea

Disease Causative agent Vector Distribution Burden Intervention Ref
Malaria P. falciparum An. gambiae,
An. arabiensis,
An. funestus
Countrywide 1.1 % prevalence ITNs, IRS, LSM [2628]
Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis) Wuchereria bancrofti An. gambiae,
An. arabiensis,
An. funestus
Countrywide Very low prevalence Large-scale distribution of LLINs for vector control [26, 29]
Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) Schistosoma haematobium
Schistosoma mansoni
Bulinus and Biomphalaria spp Gash-Barka, Debub, Anseba, Maekel 2.5 % prevalence (0–100 %) Molluscicides [26, 29]
Dengue Dengue virus Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus Gash Barka, SKB, Southern Red Sea (SRS), Debub, Anseba, and Maekel 88 % positivity rate (sub serotype-1) Increased surveillance, LSM [24, 26]
Trachoma Clostridium Trachomatis Musica sorbens (Bazaar fly) Countrywide Environmental improvement [26]
Visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) Leishmania donovani Phlebotomus orientalis
Phlebotomus
Martini and
Phlebotomus celiae
Gash Barka, SKB, Debub, Anseba, and Maekel LLINs in highly endemic communities [26]