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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate regression analysis of risk factors for asymptomatic malaria

From: Characteristics of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. parasitaemia in Kwahu-Mpraeso, a malaria endemic mountainous district in Ghana, West Africa

  n (%) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
odds ratio (CI), P value odds ratio (CI), P value
Malaria positive 43 (11.9)
Age group
 <5 60 (16.67) 1 1
 6–10 60 (16.67) 1.336 (0.46–3.86), 0.59 1.6 (0.26–9.70), 0.61
 11–15 60 (16.67) 1.7 (0.61–4.73), 0.31 2.10 (0.31–14.17), 0.45
 16–20 60 (16.67) 0.841 (0.27–2.67), 0.77 0.64 (0.09–4.41), 0.65
 21–40 60 (16.67) 0.688 (0.21–2.3), 0.55 0.50 (0.1–2.51), 0.40
 Over 40 60 (16.67) 0.688 (0.21–2.3), 0.55 0.82 (0.19–3.53), 0.79
Sex
 Female 196 (54.40) 1 1
 Male 164 (45.56) 0.86 (0.46–1.6), 0.65 1.06 (0.49–2.27), 0.89
Cluster
 Ak 60 (16.67) 1 1
 Kw 60 (16.67) 1.19 (0.38–3.78), 0.77 0.63 (0.15–2.59), 0.52
 Lh 60 (16.67) 1.59 (0.53–4.78), 0.41 1.38 (0.33–5.74), 0.66
 Ns 60 (16.67) 1.39 (0.45–4.27), 0.58 0.69 (0.18–2.72), 0.60
 Nt 60 (16.67) 0.82 (0.24–2.84), 0.75 0.58 (0.13–2.58), 0.48
 Pl 60 (16.67 %) 1.39 (0.45–4.27), 0.58 1.67 (0.43–6.41), 0.46
Protection
 A 23 (6.38) 1 1
 Mc 48 (13.3) 1.1 (0.3–4.02), 0.89 1.05 (0.23–4.89), 0.95
 Mn 74 (20.56) 0.34 (0.08–1.40), 0.14 0.28 (0.05–1.47), 0.13
 Mns 30 (8.33) 0.34 (0.06–2.04), 0.24 0.22 (0.03–1.93), 0.17
 Ms 48 (13.33) 0.55 (0.13–2.29), 0.41 0.47 (0.09–2.50), 0.37
 Msc 18 (5.00) 1.36 (0.29–6.38), 0.70 1.65 (0.27–10.28), 0.59
 N 108 (30.00) 0.71 (0.21–2.39), 0.58 0.55 (0.13–2.38), 0.42
SCDa
 AA 276 (76.67) 1 1
 AC 30 (8.33) 8.03 (3.4–18.5), <0.05 11.92 (4.30–33.08), <0.05
 AS 43 (11.94) 1.70 (0.65–4.44), 0.28 2.124 (0.69–6.54), 0.19
Last malaria episode
 <3 months 48 (13.33) 1 1
 4–6 months 11 (3.06) 1.3 (0.23–7.33), 0.77 2.41 (0.32–17.88), 0.39
 7–12 months 17 (4.72) 0.78 (0.15–4.18), 0.77 0.93 (0.133–6.60), 0.95
 >1 year 15 (4.17) 1.47 (0.33–6.54), 0.62 1.41 (0.23–8.72), 0.71
 Can not remember 251 (69.72) 0.70 (0.29–1.72), 0.45 0.69 (0.23–2.09), 0.51
 Never had 18 (5.00) 0.73 (0.14–3.90), 0.72 0.61 (0.08–4.95), 0.64
Fever remedy
 Combine 152 (42.2) 1 1
 Hospital 73 (20.23) 0.76 (0.29–2.03), 0.59 1 (0.32–3.13), 1
 Herbal 23 (6.39) 0.81 (0.17–3.78), 0.79 1.40 (0.25–7.79), 0.7
 Ignore 12 (3.33) 0.78 (0.09–6.38), 0.81 0.76 (0.06–10.05), 0.84
 No remedy 37 (10.28) 1.98 (0.75–5.24), 0.17 2.88 (0.85–9.73), 0.04
 OTC 63 (17.5) 1.80 (0.78–4.13), 0.17 2.86 (1.05–7.80), 0.09
Education
 Nil 162 (45) 1 1
 Primary 116 (32.22) 1.25 (0.59–2.68), 0.56 0.59 (0.14–2.49), 0.47
 Secondary 74 (20.56) 1.77 (0.79–3.95), 0.17 1.97 (0.45–8.54), 0.37
 Tertiary 8 (2.22) 1.30 (0.15–11.28), 0.81 2.26 (0.19–26.85), 0.52
  1. Protection here is defined as: A all of the below, Mc mosquito coil, Mn mosquito net (LLIN), Mns mosquito net (LLIN) and spray, Ms mosquito spray, Msc mosquito spray and coil, N no protection
  2. aThe frequency of Hb SC and Hb SS for entire population studied were 6 (1.7 %) and 5 (1.4 %) respectively