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Table 1 Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of study participants in western Kenya highlands

From: Discovering the cost of care: consumer, provider, and retailer surveys shed light on the determinants of malaria health-seeking behaviours

Variable Emakakha (N = 303) Emutete (N = 256) Iguhu (N = 273) Total (N = 832)
Demographic variables
 Primary income earner education
  Did not finish primary 42 (13.9 %) 62 (24.2 %) 75 (27.5 %) 179 (21.5 %)
  Primary school 137 (45.2 %) 114 (44.5 %) 97 (35.5 %) 348 (41.8 %)
  Secondary school and beyond 123 (40.6 %) 79 (30.9 %) 101 (37.0 %) 303 (36.4 %)
  Missing 1 (0.3 %) 1 (0.4 %) 0 2 (0.2 %)
Sex of primary income earner
 Male 236 (77.89 %) 144 (55.9 %) 196 (71.8 %) 576 (69.2 %)
 Female 66 (21.8 %) 107 (41.8 %) 75 (27.5 %) 248 (29.8 %)
 Both sexes 0 2 (0.8 %) 2 (0.7 %) 4 (0.5 %)
 Missing 1 (0.3 %) 5 (3.5 %) 0 6 (0.7 %)
Socioeconomic indicators
 Possessions
  Ownership of both furniture and livestock 268 (88.4 %) 238 (93.0 %) 204 (74.7 %) 710 (85.3 %)
  Ownership of furniture only 29 (9.5 %) 15 (5.8 %) 48 (17.5 %) 92 (11.1 %)
  Ownership of livestock only 2 (0.7 %) 3 (1.2 %) 19 (7.0 %) 24 (2.9 %)
  None 2 (0.7 %) 0 0 2 (0.2 %)
  Missing 2 (0.7 %) 0 2 (0.8 %) 4 (0.5 %)
Home construction
 Mud 276 (91.0 %) 235 (91.8 %) 253 (92.7 %) 764 (91.8 %)
 Cement/brick 22 (7.3 %) 17 (6.6 %) 17 (6.2 %) 56 (6.7 %)
 Missing 5 (1.7 %) 4 (1.6 %) 3 (1.1 %) 12(1.4 %)
Malaria status
 No malaria infection in family in past year 3 (1.0 %) 0 4 (1.5 %) 7 (0.8 %)
 At least one victim in family in past year 291 (96.0 %) 205 (80.1 %) 242(88.6 %) 738 (88.7 %)
 Missing 9 (3.0 %) 51 (19.9 %) 27 (9.9 %) 87 (10.5 %)
Health-seeking behaviours
 Action taken upon suspicion of malaria
  Treatment sought at hospitals, clinics, and dispensaries exclusively 144 (47.5 %) 202 (78.9 %) 204 (74.7 %) 550 (66.1 %)
  Treatment sought at pharmaceutical retail facilities exclusively 79 (26.1 %) 16 (6.3 %) 25 (9.2 %) 120 (14.4 %)
  Treatment sought at traditional healers exclusively 1 (0.3 %) 0 0 1 (0.1 %)
  No treatment facility preference indicated 42 (13.9 %) 9 (3.5 %) 25 (9.2 %) 76 (9.1 %)
  No action taken 37 (12.2 %) 24 (9.4 %) 18 (6.6 %) 79 (9.5 %)
  Missing 0 5 (1.9 %) 1 (0.3 %) 6 (0.7 %)
Treatment seeking timeline
 Delay treatment for >24 h after fever onset 180 (59.4 %) 117 (45.7 %) 110 (40.3 %) 407 (48.9 %)
 Seek treatment within 24 h after fever onset 119 (39.3 %) 135 (52.7 %) 160 (58.6 %) 414 (49.8 %)
 Missing 4 (1.3 %) 4 (1.6 %) 3 (1.1 %) 11 (1.3 %)
Medicine
 Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) exclusively 172 (56.8 %) 149 (58.2 %) 147 (53.9 %) 468 (56.3 %)
 Non-ACT exclusively: quinine, SP, Fansidar 46 (15.2 %) 16 (6.3 %) 25 (9.2 %) 87 (10.5 %)
 Painkillers exclusively 10 (3.3 %) 6 (2.3 %) 2 (0.7 %) 18 (2.2 %)
 Combination of ACTs, non-ACT, and painkillers 71 (23.4 %) 80 (31.3 %) 94 (34.4 %) 245 (29.4 %)
 Missing 4 (1.3 %) 5 (1.9 %) 5 (1.8 %) 14 (1.7 %)
Facility where pharmaceutical treatment is purchased
 Hospitals, clinics, and dispensaries exclusively 153 (50.5 %) 188 (73.4 %) 174 (63.7 %) 515 (61.9 %)
 Shopkeepers and chemists exclusively 110 (36.3 %) 24 (9.4 %) 56 (20.5 %) 190 (22.8 %)
 No preference indicated 37 (12.2 %) 41 (16.0 %) 43 (15.8 %) 121 (14.5 %)
 Missing 3 (1.0 %) 3 (1.2 %) 0 6 (0.7 %)
Health access measures
 Self-reported nearest facility
  Hospitals, clinics, and dispensaries exclusively 180 (59.4 %) 227 (88.7 %) 243 (89.0 %) 650 (78.1 %)
  Shopkeepers and chemists exclusively 109 (36.0 %) 16 (6.2 %) 25 (9.1 %) 150 (18.0 %)
  Comparable distance to hospitals/clinics/dispensaries and pharmaceutical retail facilities 12 (3.9 %) 12 (4.7 %) 4 (1.5 %) 28 (3.4 %)
  Missing 2 (0.7 %) 1 (0.4 %) 1 (0.4 %) 4 (0.5 %)
GIS-calculated nearest facility
 Health care center exclusively 93 (30.7 %) 158 (61.7 %) 248 (90.8 %) 499 (60.0 %)
 Pharmaceutical retailer exclusively 209 (69.0 %) 95 (37.1 %) 17 (6.2 %) 321 (38.6 %)
 Equidistant 1 (0.3 %) 3 (1.2 %) 8 (3.0 %) 12 (1.4 %)
Travel time
 Mean self-reported travel time to nearest facility 54.9 min (95.4 %) 55.1 min (98.0 %) 47.1 min (96.0 %) 52.4 min (96.5 %)
 Missing 14 (4.6 %) 5 (2.0 %) 11 (4.0 %) 30 (3.6 %)
Average GIS-calculated travel time
 Health care center 32.5 min 25.5 min 27.6 min 85.6 (28.5 %)
 Retailer 21.9 min 27.0 min 57.6 min 106.5 (35.5 %)
Method of travel
 Walk exclusively 260 (85.8 %) 200 (78.1 %) 240 (87.9 %) 700 (84.1 %)
 Bicycle 30 (9.9 %) 16 (6.2 %) 10 (3.7 %) 56 (6.7 %)
 Car or other motorized transport 8 (2.6 %) 25 (9.8 %) 10 (3.7 %) 43 (5.2 %)
 Mix of walking, biking, and motorized transport 3 (1.0 %) 12 (4.7 %) 11 (4.0 %) 26 (3.1 %)
 Missing 2 (0.7 %) 3 (1.2 %) 2 (0.7 %) 7 (0.8 %)
Reason for delay (if any)
 Do not delay 2 (0.7 %) 0 1 (0.4 %) 3 (0.4 %)
 Money 182 (60.0 %) 98 (38.3 %) 89 (32.6 %) 369 (44.4 %)
 Distance 2 (0.7 %) 2 (0.8 %) 1 (0.4 %) 5 (0.6 %)
 Expect improvement of condition 46 (15.2 %) 50 (19.5 %) 33 (12.1 %) 129 (15.5 %)
 Transportation 1 (0.3 %) 0 1 (0.4 %) 2 (0.2 %)
 Mix 15 (4.9 %) 1 (0.4 %) 5 (2.1 %) 21 (2.5 %)
 Other 0 0 1 (0.4 %) 1 (0.1 %)
 Missing 55 (18.2 %) 105 (41.0 %) 142 (52.0 %) 302 (36.3 %)
Affordability of treatment
 Found treatment unaffordable 43 (14.2 %) 85 (33.2 %) 99 (36.3 %) 227 (27.3 %)
 Found treatment affordable 245 (80.8 %) 169 (66.0 %) 174 (63.7 %) 588 (70.7 %)
 Missing 15 (5.0 %) 2 (7.8 %) 0 17 (2.0 %)