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Table 4 Factors associated with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum seropositivity as a marker for exposure

From: Heterogeneous malaria transmission in long-term Afghan refugee populations: a cross-sectional study in five refugee camps in northern Pakistan

  P. vivax P. falciparum
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI OR 95 % CI
Age group (years)
 ≤5 1 1 1 1
 6–20 1.89* 1.44–2.47 1.91* 1.44–2.53 1.93*** 1.15–3.23 1.87*** 1.11–3.15
 >20 7.28* 5.61–9.45 7.67* 5.83–10.10 3.05* 1.90–4.91 2.73* 1.69–4.39
 Sex—male 0.60* 0.49–0.74    1.02 0.70–1.48   
 Camp resident 6 months 0.29 0.08–1.13    0.11* 0.04–0.28 0.15* 0.05–0.42
 Travel 3 months 1.93* 1.50–2.49    1.95** 1.31–2.91 1.55*** 1.04–2.29
 Fever 2 weeks 3.18* 2.21–4.57 3.29* 2.20–4.91 2.03*** 1.08–3.82 1.99*** 1.05–3.77
 IRS 12 months 1.30 0.78–2.14    1.51 0.60–3.79   
 ITN last night 0.88 0.23–1.08    1.36 0.87–2.11   
 Use mosquito repellants 0.69* 0.58–0.81 0.68* 0.56–0.82 0.64*** 0.44–0.91 0.65*** 0.45–0.94
 Sought malaria treatment 3.47* 2.33–5.17    2.06*** 0.99–4.24   
 Roof—iron 0.91 0.73–1.15    1.58*** 1.02–2.45 1.63*** 1.04–2.55
 Eaves—closed 0.92 0.74–1.14    0.70 0.45–1.06   
 Animal ownership 1.58* 1.29–1.93 1.63* 1.30–2.05 0.86 0.57–1.30   
SES
 1 1    1   
 2 0.77 0.56–1.06    0.90 0.47–1.71   
 3 1.03 0.76–1.41    1.03 0.55–1.92   
 4 1.20 0.89–1.61    0.68 0.34–1.36   
 5 0.96 0.71–1.31    1.35 0.73–2.50   
  1. * p < 0.0001, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.05