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Table 1 Main characteristics of adult and paediatric cases during the three study periods (Period 1: 2000–2003, Period 2: 2004–2008, Period 3: 2009–2013)

From: Hospitalization and ambulatory care in imported-malaria: evaluation of trends and impact on mortality. A prospective multicentric 14-year observational study

  Adults Paediatrics
Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 p Period 2 vs Period 1 Period 3 vs Period 1 Period 1 Period 2 Period 3 p Period 2 vs Period 1 Period 3 vs Period 1
n = 6482 n = 5514 n = 4989 Difference Difference n = 2066 n = 1308 n = 895 Difference Difference
n (%) n (%) n (%) (CI 95 %) (CI 95 %) n (%) n (%) n (%) (CI 95 %) (CI 95 %)
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years) (mean ± SD) 36.6 (12.5) 38.3 (13.0) 40.2 (13.5) <10−15 1.7 (1.3; 2.2) 3.6 (3.2; 4.2) 7.7 (4.2) 7.3 (4.2) 7.8 (4.1) 0.006 −0.4 (−0.07; −0.09) 0.1 (−0.5; 0.2)
 Age categories (years)     <10−15       0.02   
  <1        56 (3) 58 (4) 36 (4)   1 (0; 3) 1 (0; 3)
  ≥1–5        594 (29) 409 (31) 230 (26)   2 (−1; 6) −3 (−7; 0)
  ≥5–15        1416 (69) 841 (64) 629 (70)   −5 (−7; −1) 1 (−2; 5)
  ≥15–30 2204 (34) 1611 (29) 1244 (25)   −5 (−7; −3) −9 (−11; −7)       
  ≥30–50 3253 (50) 2817 (51) 2545 (51)   −1 (−3; 1) −1 (−3; 1)       
  ≥50 1025 (16) 1086 (20) 1200 (24)   4 (3; 5) 8 (7; 10)       
 Sex     0.68       0.05   
  Male 4039 (62) 3493 (64) 3076 (62)   2 (−1; 3) 0 (−2; 1) 1115 (54) 717 (55) 534 (60)   1 (−2; 5) 6 (−2; 10)
 Chemoprophylaxis 123 2122 (33) 1817 (33) 1094 (22) <10−11 0 (−2;2) −11 (−13;−9) 42 1184 (58) 709 (55) 436 (49) <10−3
Parasitological characteristics
 P. falciparum 5616 (87) 4854 (88) 4494 (90) <10−5 1 (0; 3) 3 (2; 5) 1831 (89) 1189 (91) 795 (89) 0.13 2 (0; 4) 0 (−2; 3)
 Parasitaemia >4 % 384 (6) 371 (7) 450 (9) <10−5 1 (0; 2) 3 (2; 4) 251 (12) 174 (13) 133 (15) 0.08 1 (−1; 3) 3 (0; 5)
Clinical and biological characteristics
 Impaired consciousness 66 (1) 100 (2) 166 (3) <10−12 1 (0; 1) 2 (2; 3) 0 (0) 13 (1) 24 (3) <10−11 1 (1; 2) 3 (2; 3)
 Glasgow coma scale <11 16 (0.2) 10 (0.2) 24 (0.5) 0.36 0 (−0.3; 0.1) 0.3 (0; 0.5) 0 (0) 4 (0.3) 5 (1) 0.002 0.3 (0; 0.7) 1 (0.; 1)
 Respiratory failure 26 (0.4) 20 (0.4) 15 (0.3) 0.48 0 (−0.3; 0.2) −0.1 (−0.3; 0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Cardiovascular failure 5 (0.08) 16 (0.3) 42 (1) <10−7 0.2 (0.1; 0.4) 0.9 (0.05; 1) 0 (0) 3 (0.2) 6 (1) 0.0008 0.2 (−0.1; 0.5) 1 (0; 1)
 Repeated seizures ≥2/24 h 4 (0.06) 4 (0.07) 10 (0.2) 0.15 0 (−0.1; 0.1) 0.1 (0; 0.3) 0 (0) 5 (0.4) 3 (0.3) 0.001 0.4 (0; 0.8) 0.3 (−0.1; 0.7)
 Haemorrhage 10 (0.2) 7 (0.1) 8 (0.2) 0.85 −0.1 (−0.2; 0.1) 0 (−0.2; 0.2) 0 (0) 0 (0) 3 (0.3) 0.05 0.3 (−0.1; 0.7)
 Jaundice 56 (1) 70 (1) 138 (3) <10−8 0 (0; 1) 2 (1; 2) 0 (0) 3 (0.2) 24 (3) <10−8 0.2 (−0.1; 0.5) 3 (2; 3)
 Bilirubinaemia >50 µmol/L 38 (1) 66 (1) 156 (3) <10−15 0 (0; 1) 2 (2; 3) 0 (0) 3 (0.2) 17 (2) <10−6 0.2 (−0.1; 0.5) 2 (1; 3)
 Macroscopic haemoglobinuria 5 (0.08) 12 (0.2) 35 (1) <10−5 0.1 (0; .0.3) 0.1 (0; 0.1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 6 (1) 0.005 1 (0; 1)
 Haemoglobin <7 g/dL and haematocrit <20 % 18 (0.3) 23 (0.4) 30 (0.6) 0.02 0.1 (−0.1; 0.4) 0.3 (0.1; 0.6) 0 (0) 8 (1) 9 (1) <10−5 1 (0; 1) 1 (0; 2)
 Hypoglycaemia(<2.2 mmol/L) 0 (0) 2 (0.04) 4 (0.08) 0.02 0.04 (0.04; 0.1) 0.08 (0.01; 0.2) 0 (0) 1 (0.08) 1 (0.1) 0.10 0.08 (−0.2; 0.3) 0.1 (−0.3; 0.4)
 Acidaemia (pH < 7.25) 0 (0) 1 (0.02) 7 (0.1) 0.006 0.02 (0.05; 0.09) 0.1 (0.04; 0.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Hyperlactataemia (>5 mmol/L) 0 (0) 6 (0.1) 33 (1) <10−9 0.1 (0; 0.2) 1 (0; 1) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.2) 0.10 0.2 (−0.2; 0.5)
 Renal failure (creatinaemia >265 µmol/L) 59 (1) 61 (1) 90 (2) 0.002 0 (0; 0.1) 1 (0; 1) 0 (0) 4 (0.3) 2 (0.2) 0.005 0.3 (0; 0.7) 0.2 (−0.2; 0.5)
Severity
 Clinical classification 173 (3) 236 (4) 462 (9) <10−15 1 (1; 2) 6 (6; 7) 45 (2) 53 (4) 61 (7) <10−6 2 (1; 3) 5 (3; 6)
 French criteria 451 (7) 463 (8) 649 (13) <10−15 1 (0; 2) 6 (5; 7) 251 (12) 190 (15) 161 (18) 0.0001 3 (0; 5) 6 (3; 8)
  1. Data are number (%) or mean (SD) except for the differences between Periods 2 and 1 and between Periods 3 and 1—difference (CI 95 %)