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Table 1 Study population characteristics and comparison between Plasmodium spp. (P. spp.) PCR-pos vs PCR-neg groups, and between PCR-pos P. falciparum (Pf) vs P. vivax (Pv) patients (univariate analysis)

From: Molecular evidence of Plasmodium vivax infection in Duffy negative symptomatic individuals from Dschang, West Cameroon

Variable Total population P. spp. PCR− (n = 414) P. spp. PCR+ (n = 70)a P value Pf PCR+ (n = 42)b Pv PCR+ (n = 25)b P value
Age (years), n (%)
 ≤5 131 (27.1%) 112 (27.1%) 19 (27.1%) 0.153 11 (26.2%) 7 (28.0%) 0.906
 6–14 31 (6.4%) 26 (6.3%) 5 (7.1%) 2 (4.8%) 2 (8%)
 15–24 91 (18.8%) 78 (18.8%) 13 (18.6%) 9 (21.4%) 4 (16%)
 25–64 198 (40.9) 171 (41.3%) 27 (38.6%) 17 (40.5%) 9 (36%)
 ≥65 33 (6.8%) 27 (6.5%) 6 (8.6%) 3 (7.1%) 3 (12%)
 Median [IQR] 24 [4–40] 23 [4–43] 24 [4–39] 0.732 23 [4–42] 21 [3–37] 0.721
Sex, n (%)
 Male 191 (39.5%) 151 (36.5%) 40 (57.1%) 0.001 24 (57.1%) 14 (56%) 1.000
 Female 293 (60.5%) 263 (63.5%) 30 (42.9%) 18 (42.9%) 11 (44%)
Provenance, n (%)
 Urban 316 (65.3%) 264 (63.8%) 52 (74.3%) 0.103 30 (71.4%) 19 (76%) 0.780
 Rural 168 (34.7%) 150 (36.2%) 18 (25.7%) 12 (28.6%) 6 (24%)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Bamiléké 429 (89%) 363 (88%) 66 (94%) 0.151 40 (95%) 24 (96%) 1.000
 Others 55 (11%) 51 (12%) 4 (6%) 2 (5%) 1 (4%)
Co-morbidity, n (%)
 No 448 (92.6%) 383 (92.5%) 65 (92.9%) 1.000 38 (90.5%) 24 (96%) 0.643
 Yes 36 (7.4%) 31 (7.5%) 5 (7.1%) 4 (9.5%) 1 (4)
 Diabetes 8 (1.6%) 8 (1.9%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 AHT 19 (3.9%) 15 (3.7%) 4 (5.7%) 3 (7.1%) 1 (4%)
 AHT + diabetes 5 (1.1%) 5 (1.2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 AHT + bronchial asthma 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 Bronchial asthma 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 HIV infection 1 (0.2%) 1 (0.2%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 HCV infection 1 (0.2%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.4%) 1 (2.4%) 0 (0%)
Pregnancy, n (%)c
 Yes 17 (5.8%) 15 (5.7%) 2 (6.7%) 0.688 0 (0%) 2 (18.2%) 0.135
 No 276 (94.2%) 248 (94.3%) 28 (93.3%) 18 (100%) 9 (81.8%)
Previous anti-malarial self-medication, n (%)d
 Yes 198 (40.9%) 168 (40.6%) 30 (42.9%) 0.952 18 (42.9%) 11 (44%) 0.952
 No 286 (59.1%) 246 (59.4%) 40 (57.1%) 24 (57.1%) 14 (56%)
Diagnostic delay (days)
 Median [range] 3 [2–7] 3 [1–6] 3 [2–7] 0.144 3.5 [2–7] 3 [2–7] 0.707
  1. [IQR] interquartile range, AHT arterial hypertension
  2. a68 Plasmodium mono-infections (42 P. falciparum, 25 P. vivax, 1 P. malariae) and 2 P. falciparum + P. vivax co-infections
  3. bTwo co-infected (P. falciparum + P. vivax) patients not included in the analysis
  4. cOnly among women
  5. dAnti-malarial drugs taken after the onset of fever and before the medical consultation