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TableĀ 2 Potential confounders, factors and covariates expected to have the largest effect on observed insecticide susceptibility

From: Developing global maps of insecticide resistance risk to improve vector control

Variable Notes
Sampling bias (spatial) The dataset was not generated using a single systematic sampling design; the data are highly clustered in geographical space
Sampling bias (temporal) The dataset did not come from a time series that sampled the same locations at regular intervals; each time period incorporates a different set of sites and much higher data volumes are available for more recent years
Species The full dataset is linked to 74 malaria vector species and species complexes, however, over half of the bioassay records are linked to members of the An. gambiae species complex
Insecticide Within each insecticide class, different insecticides were tested (6 carbamates, 5 organochlorines, 16 organophosphates, and 8 pyrethroids)
Protocol variation Corrected mortality values were derived from a mixture of WHO bioassays (using 9 updated protocols) and CDC bottle assays
Exposure dose and duration The exposure dose and duration used in the bioassays varied although the majority of bioassays used standard doses and times
Generation tested Population samples were maintained in the laboratory for differing periods, however, only results from bioassays using F0 and F1 generations were included