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Table 1 The qualitatively different behavioural responses (parameterization and associated vector behaviours) described by the new formula

From: Combining indoor and outdoor methods for controlling malaria vectors: an ecological model of endectocide-treated livestock and insecticidal bed nets

Response Type Ecological equivalent Parametric conditions Vector behaviour
Type I Holling’s Type I α = 1
β = 1
Indiscriminate, or vector biting that is consistent (proportionate) across relative availabilities of alternative hosts
Type II Holling’s Type II α < 1
β ≥ 1
An anthropophilic vector which takes most of its blood meals on humans even when humans are less available than other hosts, and when humans and non-humans are equally available, almost all blood meals are taken from humans
Type III Holling’s Type III α ≥ 1
β > 1
This is the pattern expected with a learned behaviour, such that female mosquitoes learn to prefer the more common Type of host
Type IV Inversion of Holling’s Type II α > 1
β ≤ 1
A zoophilic vector is disinclined to bite humans until they constitute all but the only available blood source
Type V Inversion of Holling’s Type III α ≤ 1
β < 1
HBI saturates and becomes relatively invariant when humans and non-humans are at similar availability. This is analogous to ‘negative prey switching’ whereby the ‘predator’ consumes disproportionately less of the more available ‘prey’ [45]. Eventually, when non-humans become vanishingly rare, the HBI is forced to increase sharply to unity