Skip to main content


Fig. 1 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 1

From: Patterns of inflammatory responses and parasite tolerance vary with malaria transmission intensity

Fig. 1

Pattern of pro-inflammatory responses to malaria infection across different transmission sites. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, b interferon (IFN)-γ, c interleukin (IL)-2, d IL-1β, e IL-12, f IL-6, g IL-8, and h granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), were quantified in children with malaria in three areas of Ghana with varying malaria transmission intensities (Accra < Navrongo < Kintampo). Comparisons across sites were performed using Kruskal-Wallis H test with Dunn’s posthoc test (Accra N = 71; Navrongo N = 44; Kintampo N = 58). Data are presented as box plots where boxes represent the inter-quartile ranges, while the whiskers represent the 10th and 90th percentiles. The lines across the boxes indicate the median values, while closed circles represent outliers

Back to article page