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Table 2 Characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: Immunity as a predictor of anti-malarial treatment failure: a systematic review

Study: author, year Country (province) Study design (n) Age range (years) Antigen (allele)—IgG seroprevalence Antimalarial Dosage Follow-up (days) Treatment failure (n/N)
Van Geertruyden, 2009 [26] Zambia (Copperbelt) Randomized control trial (268) 15–50 AMA1b, MSP2(3D7), MSP2(FC27), VSA(E8B), VSA(A4), VSA f(HCD6) AM + LM or SPf AM + LM: 20 mg AM and 120 mg LM at 0, 8, 25, 36, 48 and 60 h;
SP: 500 mg S and 25 mg P × 3 tablets as a single dose
45 11% (30/268)h
Mayxay, 2001 [27] Thailand (Central Region) Clinical efficacy study (80) 24 (mean)a RESAb—80% AS or AS + AZ or AM + LMf DNS 28 50% (40/80)h
Enevold, 2007 [25] Tanzania (Dodoma Region) Clinical efficacy study (100) 0.5–<5 AMA1(FVO)—75%, DBL2βPF13_0003(3D7)—85%, DBL4PFD1235W(3D7)—76%, EBA-175b—62%, MSP1b—85%, MSP3(FVO)—82%, CIDR1(3D7)—72%, GLURP-R0(FVO)—70%, GLURP-R2(FVO)—65%, VSA1c—82%, VSA2d —82%, Schizont Extract (F32)—95% SP (n = 50) or AQ (n = 50) SP; 25 mg/kg S and 1.25 mg/kg P once daily for 3 days;
AQ: 10 mg/kg AQ once daily for 3 days
28 DNS
Keh, 2012 [22] Uganda (Central Region) Clinical efficacy study (88) 1–10 AMA1(3D7)—63%, MSP1-19(FVO)—95%, MSP2(3D7)—87%, MSP3b—15%, GLURPR0(F32)—26%, GLURPR2(F32)—40% AQ + SP (n = 88) AQ + SP: 25 mg/kg AQ over 3 days (10, 10, 5 mg/kg) and 25 mg/kg S and 1.25 mg/kg P on day 1 63 11% (10/88)
Mawili-Mboumba, 2003 [21] Gabon (Moyen-Ogooué) Clinical efficacy study (153) 0.5–10 MSP1Bl2(K1)—43%, MSP1 Bl2(RO33)—16%, MSP1 Bl2(MAD20)—10%, MSP1 Bl1—83% AQ (n = 153) AQ: 10 mg/kg per day for 3 days 28 33% (51/153)
Aubuoy, 2007 [23] Gabon (Hauut-Ogooué) Clinical efficacy study (232) 0.5–10 MSP1-19 e(Wellcome) AQ (n = 118) or SP (n = 114) AQ: 30 mg/kg AQ days 0 and 1;
SP: 25 mg/kg S and 1.25 mg/kg P days 0 and 1
28 AQ: 32% (38/118)
SP: 14% (16/114)
Diarra, 2012 [20] Burkina-Faso (Bazega) Clinical efficacy study (284) 0.5–15 MSP1-19b, MSP3b, GLURPb,e CQ (n = 195) or SP (n = 53) CQ: 25 mg/kg CQ over 3 days (10, 10, 5 mg/kg);
SP: 500 mg S and 25 mg Pg
28 CQ: 62% (33/53)
SP: 92% (179/195)
Pinder, 2006 [24] The Gambia (Kerewan) Clinical efficacy study (46) 1–10 AMA1(FVO)—76%, MSP1-19(Wellcome)—80% CQ (n = 46) CQ: 25 mg/kg over 3 days (10, 10, 5 mg/kg) 28 36% (17/46)
  1. SP sulphadoxine–pyrimethamine, AQ amodiaquine, DHA dihydroartemisinin, AS artesunate, AM artemether, LM lumefantrine, AZ Azithromycin, CQ chloroquine, DNS did not state
  2. aRange of ages not provided
  3. bAllele not stated by authors
  4. c3D7 unselected VSA
  5. d3D7 selected VSA on transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells
  6. eseroprevalence data not shown
  7. fPatients not stratified by treatment given
  8. gDosages not provided, taken from the 2003 WHO guidelines as stated by the paper
  9. hTreatment failure not stratified by treatment arm