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Table 1 Characteristics of all individuals that travelled outside Swaziland (positive and negative cases), with a percentage (%) of the total group size (n) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010–2014

Variable Characteristics Risk factors
Positive cases Negative cases p2) OR (95% CI) Pr(>|z|) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Pr(>|z|)
n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)
Total 902   297       
Age class      <0.0001     
<1 4 0.44 (0.01–0.88) 9 3.03 (1.08–4.98)   1   1  
1–4.9 107 11.86 (9.75–13.97) 13 4.38 (2.05–6.7)   18.52 (5.28–76.75) <0.0001 24.74 (6.06–117.47) <0.0001
5–14.9 92 10.2 (8.22–12.17) 44 14.81 (10.78–18.86)   4.7 (1.45–18.14) 0.0137 8.91 (2.15–42.79) 0.0037
15–24.9 100 11.09 (9.04–13.14) 68 22.9 (18.18–27.68)   3.31 (1.03–12.61) 0.0541 5.79 (1.5–26.11) 0.0144
25–44.9 384 42.57 (39.35–45.8) 104 35.02 (29.59–40.44)   8.31 (2.65–31.16) 0.0006 8.21 (2.22–35.61) 0.0025
45–64.9 98 10.86 (8.83–12.9) 45 15.15 (11.07–19.23)   4.90 (1.51–18.87) 0.0113 5.79 (1.47–26.43) 0.0155
65–99 12 1.33 (0.58–2.08) 14 4.71 (2.3–7.12)   1.93 (0.49–8.62) 0.3605 2.83 (0.56–15.58) 0.2136
Didn’t respond* 105 11.64 (9.55–13.73) 0       
Occupation      <0.0001     
Unemployed 144 15.96 (13.57–18.35) 126 42.42 (36.8–48.05)   1   1  
Agriculture 32 3.55 (2.34–4.75) 20 6.73 (3.88–9.58)   1.4 (0.77–2.6) 0.2778 0.75 (0.37–1.54) 0.4272
Manufacturing 24 2.66 (1.61–3.71) 3 1.01 (−0.13–2.15)   7 (2.37–29.95) 0.0018 3.06 (0.92–14.08) 0.0978
Office or clerical work 25 2.77 (1.7–3.84) 5 1.68 (0.22–3.16)   4.38 (1.76–13.26) 0.0035 1.96 (0.69–6.5) 0.2325
Other 108 11.97 (9.85–14.09) 37 12.46 (8.7–16.21)   2.55 (1.65–4.01) <0.0001 1.14 (0.65–2.01) 0.6402
Other manual labour 93 10.31 (8.33–12.29) 24 8.09 (4.98–11.18)   3.39 (2.07–5.74) <0.0001 1.09 (0.6–2.01) 0.7702
Small-market sales or trade 49 5.43 (3.95–6.91) 16 5.39 (2.82–7.96)   2.68 (1.48–5.08) 0.0016 1.71 (0.85–3.53) 0.1371
Student 74 8.2 (6.41–9.99) 66 22.22 (17.49–26.95)   0.98 (0.65–1.48) 0.9270 0.6 (0.31–1.17) 0.1382
Army 0   0       
Didn’t respond* 353 39.14 (35.95–42.32) 0       
Gender      <0.0001     
Female 262 29.05 (26.08–32.01) 178 59.93 (54.36–65.51)   1   1  
Male 636 70.51 (67.53–73.49) 119 40.07 (34.49–45.64)   3.65 (2.77–4.78) <0.0001 4.67 (3.24–6.8) <0.0001
Didn’t respond* 4 0.44 (0.01–0.88) 0       
Nationality      <0.0001     
Swazi 465 51.55 (48.29–54.81) 267 89.9 (85.76–92.97)   1   1  
Mozambican 405 44.9 (41.65–48.15) 25 8.42 (5.63–12.32)   9.30 (6.16–14.64) <0.0001 4.88 (3.08–8) <0.0001
South African 7 0.78 (0.2–1.35) 2 0.67 (0.12–2.68)   2.01 (0.48–13.56) 0.386 1.73 (0.33–13.18) 0.5430
Portuguese 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 1 0.34 (0.02–2.16)   0.57 (0.02–14.55) 0.695 0.9948
Chinese 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
American 3 0.33 (−0.04–0.71) 0       
Malawian 4 0.44 (0.01–0.88) 0       
Zambian 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
Zimbabwean 5 0.55 (0.07–1.04) 2 0.67 (0.12–2.68)   1.49 (0.20–17.10) 0.667 1.81 (0.2–17.1) 0.5835
Indian 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
Rwandan 3 0.33 (−0.04–0.71) 0       
Congolese 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
Nigerian 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
Pakistan 1 0.11 (−0.11–0.33) 0       
Other 3 0.33 (−0.04–0.71) 0       
  1. Risk factors are presented as odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the univariate model and adjusted OR when all variables were use in a multivariate model. p values from Wald test (Pr(>|z|)) for individual variables and p from X2 of the model tested against the null hypothesis. Those variables with (*) were not included in the models