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Table 5 Characteristics of the trips made within Swaziland, by positive and negative cases, with a percentage (%) of the total group size (n) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI)

From: Travel patterns and demographic characteristics of malaria cases in Swaziland, 2010–2014

Variable Characteristics Risk factors
Positive cases Negative cases p2) OR (95% CI) Pr(>|z|)
n % (95% CI) n % (95% CI)  
Total 207   720     
Reason of travel      0.2701   
Lives/staying there 17 8.21 (4.47–11.95) 161 22.36 (19.32–25.40)   1  
Business 9 4.35 (1.57–7.13) 32 4.44 (2.94–5.95)   2.66 (1.05–6.4) 0.0315
Holiday 3 1.45 (−0.018–3.08) 20 2.78 (1.58–3.98)   1.42 (0.31–4.71) 0.6001
Other 7 3.38 (0.92–5.84) 34 4.72 (3.17–6.27)   1.95 (0.71–4.91) 0.1704
Visiting friends/relatives 63 30.43 (24.17–36.70) 467 64.86 (61.37–68.35)   1.28 (0.74–2.31) 0.3952
Didn’t respond* 108 52.18 (45.37–58.99) 6 0.84 (0.17–1.50)    
Travel protection (All)      0.0011   
Any protection 9 4.35 (1.57–7.13) 82 11.39 (9.07–13.71)   1  
No protection 197 95.17 (92.25–98.09) 632 87.78 (85.39–90.17)   2.84 (1.48–6.17) 0.0038
Didn’t respond* 1 0.48 (−0.46–1.42) 6 0.83 (0.17–1.50)    
Travel protection      <0.0001   
Bed net 2 0.97 (−0.36–2.30) 80 11.11 (8.82–13.41)   1  
No protection 197 95.17 (92.25–98.09) 632 87.78 (85.39–90.17)   12.47 (3.88–76.21) 0.0005
Repellent coil 1 0.48 (−0.46–1.42) 2 0.28 (−0.12–0.66)   20 (0.75–337.99) 0.0347
Chemoprophylaxis (chemop) 6 2.9 (0.61–5.18) 0     
Didn’t respond* 1 0.48 (−0.46–1.42) 6 0.83 (0.17–1.50)    
Bed net at home      0.0004   
Bed net 47 22.71 (17–28.41) 256 35.56 (32.06–39.05)   1  
None 160 77.29 (71.59–83) 464 64.44 (60.95–67.94)   1.88 (1.32–2.72) 0.0006
  1. Risk factors are presented as odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the univariate model. p values from Wald test (Pr(>|z|)) for individual variables and p from X2 of the model tested against the null hypothesis. Those variables with an (*) were not included in the model. Note: some individuals carried out more than one trip