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Table 2 Epidemiological and clinical analysis according to 5-years periods

From: Epidemiological and clinical assessment of a shared territorial malaria guideline in the 10 years of its implementation (Barcelona, North Metropolitan Area, Catalonia, Spain, 2007–2016)

  Total (%) Period I (2007–2011) (%) Period II (2012–2016)a (%) p
Number of cases 190 (100) 72 (37.9) 118 (62.1)
Incidence (/10,000 hab/year) 0.47 0.36 0.58 <0.001
Mean age (DE) 32.0 (13.8) 30.3 (12.5) 33 (14.5) NS
Sex
 Men 121 (63.7) 50 (69.4) 71 (60.2) NS
 Women 69 (36.3) 22 (30.6) 47 (39.8)  
Species
 P. falciparum 122 (64.2) 55 (76.4) 67 (56.8)  
 P. vivax 44 (23.2) 6 (8.3) 38 (32.2) <0.001
 P. ovale 2 (1.1) 2 (2.8) 0 (0)  
 P. malariae 3 (1.6) 2 (2.8) 1 (0.8)  
 P. spp. 14 (7.4) 5 (6.9) 9 (7.6)  
 Co-infectionsb 5 (2.6) 2 (2.8) 3 (2.5)  
Positive immunocromatography (n = 126) 109 (86.5) 40 (88.9) 69 (85.2) NS
Travel destination
 Sub-Saharan Africa 142 (74.7) 66 (91.7) 76 (64.4) <0.001
 Indian sub-continent 46 (24.2) 6 (8.3) 40 (33.9) <0.001
 America 2 (1.1) 0 (0) 2 (1.7)  
Length of trip ≤ 30 days (n = 147) 39 (26.5) 19/54 (35.2) 20/93 (21.5) 0.07
Presence of risk factorsc 8 (4.2) 4 (5.6) 4 (3.4) NS
Immigrant 164 (84.3) 63 (87.5) 101 (85.6) NS
Travel reason
 Tourism 8 (4.2) 5 (6.9) 3 (2.5) 0.04
 VFR 171 (90) 66 (91.7) 105 (89)  
 Business 11 (5.8) 1 (1.4) 10 (8.5)  
Prior travel advice 26 (13.7) 6 (8.3) 20 (16.9) NS
Chemoprophylaxis 19 (10) 4 (5.6) 15 (12.7) NS
Severity 34 (17.9) 13 (18.1) 21 (17.8) NS
Parasitaemia > 4% 19 (10) 7 (9.7) 12 (10.2) NS
Treatment
 Quinine 71 (37.4) 37 (51,4) 34 (28.8) 0.001
 Artemether 4 (2.1) 0 (0) 4 (2.5)  
 Atovaquone/Prog. 62 (32.6) 17 (23.6) 45 (38.1) 0.003
 Other 53 (27.9) 17 (23.6) 36 (30.5)  
Sequelae at discharge 3 (1.6) 0(0) 3 (2.5) NS
Favourable clinical evolution (to 30 days) 190 (100) 72 (100) 118 (100) NS
Mortality 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) NS
  1. aArtemisinin-available period
  2. b P. falciparum-P. malariae: 1, P. falciparum-P. ovale: 4
  3. cImmunodeficiency: 5, pregnancy: 2, age < 1: 1