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Table 3 Genotypic and kdr allele frequencies in Anopheles arabiensis from ten national sentinel sites in Ethiopia, 2016

From: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia (2012–2016): a nationwide study for insecticide resistance monitoring

Region Site Insecticide Survival status after exposure # mosquitoes tested Homozygote mutation (RR) Heterozygote mutation (RS) Homozygote wild type (SS) kdr allele frequency χ 2 test P value % mortality in WHO tests Resistance status
R S
Oromia Babile DDT Alive 13 7 2 0 0.89 0.11 1.33 0.249 11 R
Dead 9 9 0 0 1 0
Deltamethrin Alive 15 14 0 0 1 0 22 R
Dead 9 8 1 0 0.94 0.167 1.431 0.232
Nono DDT Alive 12 2 3 3 0.44 0.56 1.635 0.201 29 R
Dead 9 0 3 3 0.25 0.75 1.444 0.229
Deltamethrin Alive 8 7 0 0 1 0 52 R
Dead 6 2 2 2 0.5 0.5 0.667 0.414
Asendabo DDT Alive 28 9 11 6 0.56 0.44 0.635 0.426 10 R
Dead 0 0 0 0 0 0
Deltamethrin Alive 25 3 12 6 0.43 0.57 9.706 0.00184 8 R
Dead 7 1 1 3 0.3 0.7 1.551 0.213
Ziway-Dugda DDT Alive 30 9 10 11 0.47 0.53 3.272 0.0705 27 R
Dead 10 0 2 8 0.1 0.9 0.123 0.725
Deltamethrin Alive 9 2 4 3 0.44 0.56 0.092 0.762 76 R
Dead 8 0 1 7 0.06 0.94 0.04 0.841
Amhara Metema DDT Alive 11 1 3 4 0.31 0.69 0.914 0.339 74 R
Dead 8 0 1 4 0.2 0.8 1.516 0.218
Deltamethrin Alive 1 1 0 0 1 0 99 S
Dead 0 0 0 0 0 0
SNNPR Arba Minch DDT Alive 28 12 7 7 0.6 0.4 4.869 0.0273 51 R
Dead 10 1 3 4 0.31 0.69 0.505 0.477
Deltamethrin Alive 22 12 8 2 0.73 0.27 0.157 0.692 41 R
Dead 6 2 1 3 0.41 0.59 2.619 0.106
Tigray Alamata DDT Alive 30 10 12 4 0.62 0.38 0.552 0.458 34 R
Dead 9 0 4 3 0.29 0.71 1.301 0.254
Deltamethrin Alive 20 6 5 4 0.57 0.43 4.834 0.0279 50 R
Dead 10 0 1 3 0.13 0.87 3.631 0.0567
Humera DDT Alive 27 14 6 4 0.71 0.29 3.685 0.0549 33 R
Dead 10 0 2 5 0.14 0.86 1.041 0.308
Deltamethrin Alive 24 7 6 5 0.56 0.44 2.935 0.0867 39 R
Dead 9 2 2 4 0.38 0.62 1.646 0.2
Afar Amibara DDT Alive 30 6 6 13 0.36 0.64 5.617 0.0178 67 R
Dead 10 0 1 4 0.1 0.9 2.531 0.112
Deltamethrin Alive 24 3 3 8 0.33 0.68 6.529 0.0106 53 R
Dead 9 0 0 5 0 1
Gambela Abobo DDT Alive 19 0 2 1 0.33 0.67 13.593 0.000227 37 R
Dead 9 1 0 2 0.33 0.67 5.01 0.0252
Deltamethrin Alive 30 11 7 3 0.73 0.27 3.827 0.05 33 R
Dead 8 0 1 5 0.08 0.92 0.541 0.462