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Table 1 Mortality of Anopheles gambiae s.l. following exposure to permethrin with and without pre-exposure to the synergist PBO (2013)

From: A village level cluster-randomized entomological evaluation of combination long-lasting insecticidal nets containing pyrethroid plus PBO synergist in Southern Mali

Village Number tested permethrin Number tested permethrin + PBO % mortality permethrin (95% CI) % mortality perm + PBO (95% CI) P value
Permethrin LLIN distributed
 Karako 100 70 1 (< 1–5) 21 (14–34) 0.001
 Geleba 2 103 103 1 (< 1–5) 43 (33–53) 0.001
 Toula (east and west)a 102 101 1 (< 1–5) 4 (2–10) 0.175
 Total 305 274 1 (< 1–3) 23 (18–29) 0.001
Permethrin + PBO LLIN distributed
 Dialakeb 104 100 3 (< 1–8) 11 (6–19) 0.022
 Lelenkoub 100 99 0 (0–4) 15 (9–24) 0.001
 Farabacoura west 104 102 0 (0–3) 7 (3–14) 0.008
 Deneklin 103 100 4 (< 1–9) 75 (65–83) 0.001
 Faradjelec Not tested n/a
 Total 411 401 2 (1–3) 27 (23–31) 0.001
  1. aToula east and west were subsequently separated into two village clusters prior to treatment allocation
  2. bDue to the small size and proximity of Dialake and Lelenkou, they were subsequently included in the study as a single village cluster
  3. cDue to the availability of mosquitoes only deltamethrin and deltamethrin + PBO were tested in Faradjele. The mortality was 38% (n = 99) with deltamethrin and 77% (n = 103) with deltamethrin + PBO. The result showed a significant increase of mortality after PBO exposure (P = 0.0001)