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Table 2 Adjunctive therapy administered after the onset of neurological symptoms of ECM

From: Adjunctive therapy for severe malaria: a review and critical appraisal

Author, year, reference Adjuvant Therapy Route of administration Outcome of treatment administered after neurological symptoms
 Waknine-Grinberg et al. 2013, [124] Glucocorticosteroids in liposomes i.v. injection Improved survival, prevented ECM symptoms, improved clinical scores
 Dende et al. 2015, [127] Curcumin oral gavage Improved survival, reduced parasitemia
 Dai et al. 2012, [129] Lithium chloride injection (route not described) Prevention of cognitive and motor deficits. Reduced long-term motor coordination impairment. No effect on survival or parasitemia
 Cabrales et al. 2010, [130] Nimodipine i.p. injection Improved survival, improved motor score, reduced pial vasoconstriction
 Martins et al. 2013, [132] Nimodipine s.c. osmotic pumps Improved survival, reduced BBB dysfunction, reduced inflammation
Delivering gaseous signaling
 Orjuela-Sanchez et al. 2013, [133] Glyceryl trinitrate Transdermal patch Improved survival, reversal of pial arteriolar vasoconstriction
Improving endothelial function
 Higgins et al. 2016 [140] Recombinant human Ang-1 s.c. injection Improved survival, prevents worsening of clinical outcomes, reduced cerebrovascular leak
 Wilson et al. 2013, [141] Atorvastatin i.p. injection Improved survival, reduced systemic and cerebral inflammation, reduces endothelial activation and reduced cerebrovascular leak
 Dwivedi H et al. 2016, [145] Vitamin D i.m. injection Improved survival, reduced cerebrovascular leak, reduced inflammation
  1. CQ chloroquine, ECM experimental cerebral malaria, i.m. intramuscular, IV intravenous, NO nitric oxide, s.c. subcutaneous, SM severe malaria, UM uncomplicated malaria