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Table 1 Physicochemical properties of water samples collected from different urban polluted larval habitats of Anopheles arabiensis in Khartoum state

From: Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan: a noticeable tolerance to urban polluted larval habitats associated with resistance to Temephos

ID Site Type of larval habitats Contamination type Depth (cm) Grass Algae Den/dip (TN) Color Odor Abiotic variables Heavy metals
pH Cond (uS/cm) TDS (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Oil (mg/l) Nitrate (mg/l) Cu (mg/l) Pb (mg/l) Fe (mg/l)
1 Gabal Awlia Semi-permanent Ponds from sewage water canal 15 Yes Yes 2 Yellowish Bad 7.63 1967 1376.9 134 0.0190 303 0.0086 0.1068 N.D.
2 Semi-permanent Ponds from sewage water canal 30 Yes Yes 1 Yellowish Bad 7.84 2350 1645 209 0.10 9.357 0.0152 N.D. 2.0181
3 Khartoum Semi-permanent Pond from sewage water canal 40 Yes Yes 0.9 Yellowish Bad 7.65 1618 1132.6 483 0.21 7.686 0.0065 0.0138 0.1252
4 Permanent Sewage water canal 70 No Yes 0.3 Redish Bad 7.45 6160 4312 231 0.07 11.660 0.0011 N.D. N.D.
5 permanent Sewage canal of industrial area 30 Yes Yes 1.1 Clean Bad 7.22 490 343 28.8
6 East Nile Permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 25 Yes No 1.5 Clean Bad 7.30 519 363.3 4.66
7 Semi-permanent Concrete water tank 15 No No 3.8 Greenish Bad 7.67 580 406 14.4 0.034 3.606 0.0119 N.D. 0.4151
8 Permanent Sewage water manhol 20 No Yes 1.4 Clean Bad 8.05 3430 2401 2.99 0.44 7.008 N.D. 0.0345 0.9232
9 Permenant Accumulations of houses sewage water 10 Yes Yes 5.6 Blackish Bad 6.93 1119 783.3 1012 0.0440 6.90 0.0140 0.1068 0.4487
10 Permanent Irrigated water canala 10 Yes Yes 6 Clean Normal 6.93 216 151.2 3.60 0.0090 4.30 0.0173 0.0667 N.D.
11 Khartoum North Semi-permanent Waste water canal 20 Yes Yes 1.5 Clean Bad 7.15 324 226.8 653 0.15 2.144 N.D. N.D. 0.7908
12 Semi-permanent Waste water from a factory 25 No No 1.4 Redish Bad 7.99 6650 4655 552
13 Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 25 Yes Yes 1.6 Clean Bad 7.16 313 219.1 8.44
14 Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 10 Yes Yes 3.7 Clean Bad 7.40 2440 1708 9.49
15 Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 20 No Yes 1.6 Clean Bad 6.81 782 547.4 26.9
16 Omdurman Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 15 Yes Yes 2 Yellowish Bad 7.18 1655 1158.5 8.26
17 Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 60 Yes Yes 0.6 Clean Bad 7.18 830 581 22
18 Semi-permanent Accumulations of houses sewage water 20 Yes Yes 1.7 Clean Bad 7.36 1998 1398.6 6.44
  1. N.D. Not detected, – Not done
  2. aNormal An. arabiensis larval habitat