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Table 6 Comparison of categorical demographic and EEG variables by outcome (neurological morbidity in survivors) (OR, 95% CI)

From: Admission EEG findings in diverse paediatric cerebral malaria populations predict outcomes

Country Clinical or EEG variable Children with variable who were alive with sequelae (N, %) Children with variable who were alive without sequelae (N, %) Odds ratioa 95% confidence interval p value
Uganda Total N (101)      
Retinopathy positive 32 (72.7) 38 (69.1) 1.19 0.49, 2.86 0.6930
HIV reactivity 3 (6.9) 0    
Variability 28 (63.6) 34 (64.2) 0.98 0.43, 2.25 0.9581
Asymmetry 4 (9.1) 9 (16.1) 0.52 0.15, 1.83 0.3089
Electrographic seizures (present) 3 (6.8) 5 (8.9) 0.75 0.17, 3.31 0.7002
Spindles (present) 26 (61.9) 34 (64.2) 0.91 0.39, 2.10  
Vertex sharp waves 22 (51.2) 25 (47.2) 1.17 0.52, 2.63 0.6972
Focal slowing 0 2 (3.8)    
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 15 (37.5) 25 (49.0) 0.62 0.27, 1.45 0.2730
Normal reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 2 (5.0) 1 (1.9) 2.08 0.18, 24.40 0.4128
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 13 (32.5) 24 (47.1) 0.56 0.24, 1.35 0.1895
Malawi Total N (137)      
HIV reactivity 1 (7.1) 11 (10.0) 0.69 0.08, 5.81 0.7347
Variability 7 (43.8) 64 (52.9) 0.69 0.24, 1.98 0.4932
Asymmetry 7 (43.8) 33 (27.3) 2.07 0.72, 6.02 0.1797
Electrographic seizures present 6 (37.5) 10 (8.3) 6.7 2.0, 22.1 0.002
Spindles present 5 (31.3) 53 (43.8) 0.58 0.19, 1.78 0.3438
Vertex sharp waves 1 (6.3) 36 (29.8) 0.16 0.02, 1.24 0.0788
Focal slowing (focal versus gen) 4 (25.0) 10 (8.3) 3.7 1.01, 13.6 0.0491
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 6 (37.5) 56 (48.3) 0.64 0.22, 1.89 0.4209
Normal Reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 5 (31.3) 32 (27.6) 0.94 0.29, 2.98 0.3837
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 1 (6.3) 24 (20.7) 0.25 0.03, 2.06 0.2025
Uganda + Malawi Total N (281)      
Retinopathy positive 48 (80.0) 159 (90.3) 0.43 0.19, 0.96 0.0390
HIV reactivity 4 (7.0) 11 (6.6) 1.06 0.33, 3.48 0.9190
Variability 35 (58.3) 98 (56.3) 1.09 0.59, 1.97 0.7862
Asymmetry 11 (18.3) 42 (23.7) 0.72 0.34, 1.51 0.3875
Electrographic seizures present 9 (15.0) 15 (8.5) 1.91 0.79, 4.62 0.1529
Spindles present 31 (53.5) 87 (50.0) 1.15 0.63, 2.08 0.6493
Vertex sharp waves 23 (38.9) 61 (35.1) 1.18 0.64, 2.18 0.5875
Focal slowing 4 (6.8) 12 (6.9) 0.98 0.30, 3.17 0.9756
Reactivity (normal + paradoxical) 21 (37.5) 81 (48.5) 0.64 0.34, 1.19 0.1543
Reactivity (increase in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 7 (12.5) 33 (19.8) 0.52 0.21, 1.29 0.2856
Paradoxical reactivity (decrease in voltage and/or frequency with stimulus) 14 (25.0) 48 (28.7) 0.72 0.35, 1.46 0.9846
  1. aOdds of disability of children having the EEG feature divided by the odds of disability of children without the EEG feature