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Table 4 Bivariate analysis of household demographics, behavioural factors, and peri-domestic environmental characteristics by presence/absence of agriculture

From: Household-level and surrounding peri-domestic environmental characteristics associated with malaria vectors Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles funestus along an urban–rural continuum in Blantyre, Malawi

  All households Agriculture absent Agriculture present P value (T test or Chi square)
N Mean or Freq SD or % N Mean or Freq SD or % N Mean or Freq SD or %
Demographics
 Number of rooms 1546 3.7 1.9 726 3.8 2.1 820 3.6 1.6 0.14
 Number of children under age 5 1520 0.6 0.8 700 0.5 0.7 820 0.6 0.8 < 0.01
 Number slept in the house 1520 3.8 1.9 700 3.7 2.0 820 3.9 1.7 0.13
 Age of household head (years) 1520 40.5 16.8 700 40.7 16.4 820 40.3 17.1 0.64
 Male head of household 1520 621 40.9% 700 290 41.4% 820 331 40.4% 0.67
 Highest educational attainment of head of household 1509    692    817    < .0001
 No formal education   95 6.3%   35 5.1%   60 7.3%  
 Some primary education   792 52.5%   315 45.5%   477 58.4%  
 Some secondary education   487 32.3%   250 36.1%   237 29.0%  
 Some college   135 8.9%   92 13.3%   43 5.3%  
Malaria prevention practices
 Total number of nets per household 1546 1.6 1.3 726 1.7 1.4 820 1.5 1.2 0.0001
 Respondent used a net night prior to study 1548 986 63.7% 728 463 63.6% 820 523 63.8% 0.94
 Other family members used a net night prior to study 1548 917 59.2% 728 414 56.9% 820 503 61.3% 0.07
 Ave. number of nets per person 1520 0.5 0.4 700 0.5 0.4 820 0.4 0.4 < .0001
Household environmental characteristics (50 m buffer)
 Within Blantyre city limits 1548 532 34.4% 728 352 48.4% 820 180 22.0% < .0001
 Increasing distance from city centre (2.5 km intervals) 1548    728    820    < .0001
 2.5 km   190 12.3%   143 19.6%   47 5.7%  
 5 km   193 12.5%   132 18.1%   61 7.4%  
 7.5 km   196 12.7%   115 15.8%   81 9.9%  
 10 km   193 12.5%   82 11.3%   111 13.5%  
 12.5 km   193 12.5%   81 11.1%   112 13.7%  
 15 km   196 12.7%   61 8.4%   135 16.5%  
 17.5 km   194 12.5%   51 7.0%   143 17.4%  
 20 km   193 12.5%   63 8.7%   130 15.9%  
Section/region 1548    728    820    < .0001
 Lunzu (1)   190 12.3%   113 15.5%   74 9.0%  
 Chileka (2)   193 12.5%   106 14.6%   84 10.2%  
 Chilomoni (3)   196 12.7%   86 11.8%   104 12.7%  
 Mpemba (4)   193 12.5%   120 16.5%   74 9.0%  
 Chigumula (5)   193 12.5%   77 10.6%   122 14.9%  
 Mikolongwe (6)   196 12.7%   82 11.3%   113 13.8%  
 Kachere (7)   194 12.5%   84 11.5%   115 14.0%  
 Machinjiri (8)   193 12.5%   60 8.2%   134 16.3%  
 Rainy season (vs. dry) 1548 618 39.9% 728 124 17.0% 820 494 60.2% < .0001
 Elevation (m) 1548 945.0 175.9 728 947.2 165.3 820 943.0 184.9 0.64
 Number nearby households 1548 8.3 10.4 728 9.6 13.0 820 7.2 7.2 < .0001
 Amount of land used for growing crops (%) 1548 25.8 40.4 728 21.4 38.7 820 29.6 41.5 < .0001
 NDVI (rainy season) 1548 0.3 0.1 728 0.3 0.1 820 0.3 0.1 < .0001
 NDVI category (rainy season) 1548    728    820    0.20
 ≤ 0.1 (barren: rock/sand/urban)   4 0.3%   2 0.3%   6 0.7%  
 > 0.1 and ≤ 0.4 (shrub/grassland)   1291 83.4%   617 84.8%   674 82.2%  
 > 0.4 and ≤ 1 (temperate/tropical rainforest)   251 16.2%   107 14.7%   144 17.6%  
 NDVI (dry season) 1548 0.2 0.0 728 0.2 0.0 820 0.2 0.0 < .0001
 NDVI category (dry season) 1548    728    820    < .0001
 ≤ 0.1 (barren: rock/sand/urban)   92 5.9%   73 10.0%   19 2.3%  
 > 0.1 and ≤ 0.4 (shrub/grassland)   1456 94.1%   655 90.0%   801 97.7%  
 > 0.4 and ≤ 1 (temperate/tropical rainforest)   0 0%   0 0%   0 0%  
 Fruit trees 1548 1134 73.3% 728 439 60.3% 820 695 84.8% < .0001
 Grazing 1548 275 17.8% 728 217 8.7% 820 212 25.9% < .0001
 Forest 1548 108 7.0% 728 65 8.9% 820 43 5.2% < 0.01
 Ownership of goats 1546 221 14.3% 726 76 10.5% 820 145 17.7% < .0001
 Ownership of chickens 1546 582 37.6% 726 248 34.2% 820 334 40.7% 0.01
Housing construction
 Closed (vs. fully/partially open) windows 1527 175 11.5% 719 93 12.9% 808 82 10.2% 0.09
 Closed (vs. fully/partially open) eaves 1537 146 9.5% 720 76 10.6% 817 70 8.6% 0.19
Roof type 1512    694    818    < .0001
 Iron sheets   1129 74.7%   565 81.4%   564 68.9%  
 Thatched   379 25.1%   126 18.2%   253 30.9%  
 Tile   4 0.3%   3 0.4%   1 0.1%  
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)