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Table 1 Prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian parasites in cranes maintained in open aviaries and examined by PCR diagnostics in Beijing Zoo, 2007–2014

From: Malaria parasites and related haemosporidians cause mortality in cranes: a study on the parasites diversity, prevalence and distribution in Beijing Zoo

Bird species Adult Juvenile
No. examined No. positive Infected with No. examined No. positive Infected with
Pl H L Lineage    Pl H L Lineage
Anthropodies paradisea 9 0 0 0 0   4 1 1 0 0 C
Balearica pavonina 3 0 0 0 0   4 0 0 0 0  
Balearica regulorum 8 0 0 0 0   2 0 0 0 0  
Bugeranus carunculatus 0 0 0 0 0   2 1 1 0 0 C
Grus antigone 1 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0 0  
Grus japonensis 25 12 0 0 12 G1 11 4 4 0 0 A
Grus monacha 0 0 0 0 0   1 1 1 0 0 D
Grus leucogeranus 4 13 0 13 0 F 4 2 2 0 0 A
Grus nigricollis 9 0 0 0 0   10 9 9 0 0 A1, E
Grus vipio 3 24 1a 1b 1c B, F, H 4 2 1 1 0 A, F
Total (10 species) 62 4 (6.5) 1 (1.6) 2 (3.2) 2 (3.2) 4 lineages 42 20 (47.6) 19 (45.2) 1 (2.4) 0 5 lineages
  1. Pl—Plasmodium, H—Haemoproteus, L—Leucocytozoon. Prevalence of infection (in percentage) is given in parentheses. Plasmodium spp. lineages: A—pSGS1, B—p SW2, C—pANTPAR01, D—pGRUMON01, E—pGRUNIG01; Haemoproteus sp. lineage: F—hGRUVIP01; Leucocytozoon spp. lineages: G—lGRUJAP02, H—lCB1
  2. 1Indicate microscopy positive samples
  3. 2This Grus japonensis individual originated from artificial breeding in the Zoo was infected with lineage lGRUJAP02
  4. 3This Grus leucogeranus individual originated from Nanjing Red Forest Zoo was infected with lineage hGRUVIP01
  5. 4These 2 Grus vipio individuals were from natural habitat of northeastern China, (a) infected with lineage pSW2; (b) lineage hGRUVIP01 and (c) lCB1