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Table 3 Multivariable association between IRS and exposures of interest, adjusted for regional, enumeration area and household clustering in Namibia 2013 (n = 9597)

From: A cross-sectional analysis of ITN and IRS coverage in Namibia in 2013

Exposures of interest Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
RR (95% CI) p-value RR (95% CI) p-value RR (95% CI) p-value
Residence type
 Urban 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Rural 6.41 (5.56–7.40) < 0.001 4.53 (3.5–5.9) < 0.001 5.02 (3.83–6.58) < 0.001
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 Second 0.71 (0.63–0.80) < 0.001 1.12 (0.98–1.28) 0.097 1.16 (1.02–1.33) 0.029
 Middle 0.50 (0.43–0.57) < 0.001 1.11 (0.95–1.30) 0.189 1.20 (1.03–1.40) 0.023
 Fourth 0.32 (0.28–0.37) < 0.001 1.02 (0.84–1.25) 0.813 1.25 (1.03–1.51) 0.021
 Highest 0.16 (0.13–0.20) < 0.001 1.11 (0.84–1.47) 0.449 1.63 (1.25–2.13) < 0.001
Regional PfPR2–10 (%)
 < 1 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
 1 to < 5 15.83 (11.40–22.0) < 0.001 11.00 (3.18–38.07) < 0.001 5.82 (1.60–21.22) 0.008
 > 5 23.42 (17.16–31.95) < 0.001 27.12 (10.76–68.35) < 0.001 14.54 (5.56–38.02) < 0.001
  1. Model 1, univariable association between exposures of interest and IRS coverage; Model 2, adjusted for regional and enumeration area clustering; Model 3, additionally adjusted for all other exposures of interest in the table; PfPR2–10, Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate in those aged 2–10 years; IRS, indoor residual spraying