Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Distribution of participants according to ITN use

From: Factors associated with insecticide-treated net usage among women of childbearing age in Malawi: a multilevel analysis

Variable Pregnant women n = 1634 Nonpregnant women with children under 5 years n = 11,197 Nonpregnant women without children under 5 years n = 3299
n (%) No n = 883 n (%) Yes n = 751 p-valuea n (%) No n = 5951 n (%) Yes n = 5246 p-valuea n (%) No n = 2009 n (%) Yes n = 1290 p-valuea
Individual-level factors
 Age (years)    0.977    < 0.001***    0.061
  15–24 482 (54.3) 405 (45.7)   1799 (51.3) 1709 (48.7)   321 (65.1) 172 (34.9)  
  25–34 308 (53.7) 266 (46.2)   2538 (52.2) 2326 (47.8)   487 (63.5) 280 (36.5)  
  ≥ 35 93 (53.8) 80 (46.2)   1614 (57.1) 1211 (42.9)   1201 (58.9) 838 (41.1)  
 Education    0.001**    < 0.001***    < 0.001***
  No education 100 (17.4) 475 (82.6)   952 (62.4) 573 (37.6)   405 (66.1) 208 (33.9)  
  Primary education 599 (55.7) 476 (44.3)   4046 (54.9) 3316 (45.1)   1219 (63.1) 713 (36.9)  
  Secondary+ 184 (42.2) 252 (57.8)   953 (41.3) 1357 (58.7)   385 (51.1) 369 (48.9)  
 Occupation    0.643    0.064    0.038*
  Unemployed 291 (55.0) 238 (45.0)   1656 (51.3) 1574 (46.7)   494 (64.8) 268 (35.2)  
  Employed 592 (53.6) 513 (46.4)   4295 (53.9) 3672 (46.1)   1515 (59.7) 1022 (40.3)  
 Religion    0.925    0.073    0.729
  Catholic 158 (50.8) 153 (49.2)   1067 (50.4) 1051 (49.6)   438 (60.2) 290 (39.8)  
  Protestant 569 (54.3) 478 (45.7)   4000 (54.9) 3280 (45.1)   1370 (61.4) 860 (38.6)  
  Muslim and other 156 (56.5) 120 (43.5)   884 (55.3) 715 (44.7)   201 (58.9) 140 (41.1)  
 Wealth    0.005**    < 0.001***    < 0.001***
  Poor 449 (59.1) 311 (40.9)   2782 (59.2) 1916 (40.8)   627 (67.8) 298 (32.2)  
  Middle 153 (51.0) 147 (49.0)   1190 (52.8) 1064 (47.2)   402 (63.2) 234 (36.8)  
  Rich 281 (49.0) 293 (51.0)   1979 (46.6) 2266 (53.4)   980 (56.4) 758 (43.6)  
 Region    0.487    0.579    0.873
  Northern 117 (54.9) 96 (45.1)   731 (51.6) 686 (48.4)   231 (62.4) 139 (37.6)  
  Central 399 (54.4) 335 (45.6)   2569 (53.9) 2195 (46.1)   888 (60.1) 589 (39.9)  
  Southern 367 (54.3) 320 (46.6)   2651 (52.9) 2365 (47.1)   890 (60.9) 572 (39.1)  
 Residence    0.056    < 0.001***    0.016*
  Rural 778 (55.4) 626 (44.6)   5195 (54.6) 4325 (45.4)   1628 (65.2) 867 (34.8)  
  Urban 105 (45.7) 125 (54.3)   756 (45.1) 920 (54.9)   381 (54.1) 323 (45.9)  
 Altitude (m)    0.863    0.922    0.168
  < 1600 876 (54.0) 745 (46.0)   5916 (53.1) 5215 (46.9)   1994 (60.8) 1285 (39.2)  
  ≥ 1600 7 (53.8) 6 (46.2)   35 (45.0) 31 (47.0)   15 (75.0) 5 (15.0)  
 Parity    < 0.001***    < 0.001***    0.189
  Primigravida 275 (62.8) 163 (37.2)   61 (81.3) 14 (18.7)   282 (66.5) 142 (33.5)  
  Secundigravida 168 (43.5) 218 (56.5)   1011 (49.6) 1027 (50.4)   193 (58.5) 137 (41.5)  
  Multigravida 440 (54.3) 370 (45.7)   4879 (53.7) 4205 (46.3)   1535 (60.3) 1011 (39.7)  
 Children under 5 years in HH    0.682    0.739   
  None 350 (55.5) 281 (44.5)   NA NA   NA NA  
  One 410 (53.5) 356 (46.5)   3602 (53.3) 3155 (46.7)   NA NA  
  ≥ 2 123 (52.0) 114 (48.0)   2349 (52.9) 2091 47.1)   NA NA  
 Number of HH members    0.011*    < 0.001***    0.049*
  < 5 505 (50.8) 489 (49.2)   1888 (47.7) 2072 (52.3)   943 (58.5) 670 (41.5)  
  ≥ 5 378 (59.1) 262 (40.9)   4063 (56.1) 3174 (43.9)   1066 (63.2) 620 (36.8)  
 Number of ITNs in HH    < 0.001***    < 0.001***    < 0.001***
  < 2 730 (64.8) 397 (35.2)   4835 (68.7) 2202 (31.3)   1689 (80.0) 423 (20.0)  
  ≥ 2 153 (30.2) 354 (69.8)   1116 (26.8) 3044 (73.2)   320 (27.0) 867 (73.0)  
 IRS    0.234    0.340    0.234
  No 832 (54.6) 693 (45.4)   5605 (53.3) 4909 (46.7)   1918 (61.2) 1215 (38.8)  
  Yes 51 (46.8) 58 (53.2)   346 (50.7) 336 (49.3)   91 (54.8) 75 (45.2)  
 Media exposure    0.013*    < 0.001***    < 0.001***
  No 582 (57.2) 435 (42.8)   3946 (56.3) 3063 (43.7)   1241 (64.4) 685 (35.6)  
  Yes 301 (48.8) 316 (51.2)   2005 (47.9) 2183 (52.1)   768 (55.9) 605 (44.1)  
 Distance to HF    0.001**    0.001**    <0.001**
  No problem 330 (48.2) 354 (51.8)   2462 (50.7) 2392 (49.3)   856 (56.8) 651 (43.2)  
  Problem 553 (58.2) 397 (41.8)   3489 (55.0) 2854 (45.0)   1153 (64.3) 639 (35.7)  
 Women’s autonomy in HC decisions    0.791    0.088    0.468
  Self 133 (55.6) 106 (44.4)   1160 (55.1) 944 (44.9)   405 (61.4) 255 (38.6)  
  Husband alone 305 (52.6) 275 (47.4)   1929 (54.0) 1641 (46.0)   600 (62.8) 355 (37.2)  
  With others 445 (54.6) 370 (45.4)   2862 (51.8) 2661 (48.2)   1005 (59.6) 680 (40.4)  
 Health behaviour    0.529    < 0.001***    0.008**
  Poor 115 (55.3) 93 (44.7)   788 (60.6) 512 (39.4)   225 (68.2) 105 (31.8)  
  Moderate 441 (49.6) 448 (50.4)   3700 (53.9) 3169 (46.1)   1250 (61.7) 777 (38.3)  
  Good 217 (50.8) 210 (49.2)   1463 (48.3) 1564 (51.7)   534 (56.7) 408 (43.3)  
Community-level factors
 Community employment    0.034*    0.170    0.316
  Low 279 (54.9) 229 (45.1)   1943 (52.4) 1762 (47.6)   548 (57.7) 401 (42.3)  
  Middle 237 (48.2) 255 (51.8)   1721 (51.5) 1619 (48.5)   698 (62.5) 418 (37.5)  
  High 367 (57.9) 267 (42.1)   2287 (55.1) 1865 (44.9)   763 (61.8) 471 (38.2)  
 Community education    0.356    0.007**    0.130
  Low 363 (56.5) 279 (43.5)   2287 (56.1) 1793 (43.9)   672 (62.3) 407 (37.7)  
  Middle 303 (51.3) 288 (48.7)   2045 (53.0) 1815 (47.0)   763 (63.0) 449 (37.0)  
  High 217 (54.1) 184 (45.9)   1619 (49.7) 1638 (50.3)   574 (51.8) 434 (48.2)  
 Community wealth    0.014*    < 0.001***    0.088
  Low 389 (57.9) 283 (42.1)   2426 (56.2) 1894 (43.8)   695 (64.7) 379 (35.3)  
  Middle 301 (55.2) 244 (44.8)   2141 (53.8) 1837 (46.2)   638 (60.7) 413 (39.3)  
  High 193 (46.3) 224 (53.7)   1384 (47.7) 1515 (52.3)   676 (57.6) 498 (42.4)  
 Community distance to HF    0.402    0.009**    0.128
  Low 255 (54.0) 217 (46.0)   1367 (49.0) 1424 (51.0)   675 (60.9) 434 (39.1)  
  Middle 315 (53.8) 271 (46.2)   2288 (53.8) 1967 (46.2)   798 (63.1) 466 (36.9)  
  High 343 (56.6) 263 (43.4)   2296 (55.3) 1854 (44.7)   636 (62.0) 390 (38.0)  
 Community ITN coverage    < 0.001***    < 0.001***    < 0.001***
  Low 422 (61.6) 263 (38.4)   2803 (63.1) 1638 (36.9)   969 (72.8) 362 (27.2)  
  Middle 314 (54.2) 265 (45.8)   2189 (52.4) 1988 (47.6)   697 (60.2) 460 (39.8)  
  High 147 (39.7) 223 (60.3)   959 (37.2) 1620 (62.8)   343 (42.3) 468 (57.7)  
 Community women’s autonomy in HC decisions    0.124    0.106    0.883
  Low 357 (57.9) 260 (42.9)   2108 (55.1) 1719 (44.9)   611 (61.8) 378 (38.2)  
  Middle 262 (50.1) 261 (49.9)   2033 (53.4) 1776 (46.6)   694 (60.8) 447 (39.2)  
  High 263 (53.3) 230 (46.7)   1810 (50.8) 1751 (49.2)   704 (60.2) 465 (39.8)  
 Community IRS coverage    0.989    0.521    0.736
  Low 288 (36.5) 500 (63.5)   4262 (53.5) 3709 (46.5)   1490 (61.1) 947 (39.9)  
  High 295 (54.0) 251 (46.0)   1689 (52.3) 1537 (47.7)   519 (60.2) 343 (39.8)  
  1. HF health facility, IRS indoor residual spraying, HH household, HC health care, ITN insecticide-treated nets
  2. p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001
  3. aPearson’s Chi square test