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Table 5 Prevalence of contextual factors influencing all-cause mortality over time in Mali, 2001 versus 2012–2013

From: Impact evaluation of malaria control interventions on morbidity and all-cause child mortality in Mali, 2000–2012

Factors 2001
% (95% CI)
N
2006
% (95% CI)
N
2012–2013
% (95% CI)
N
Changea p£
Socio-economic
 Household with improved water source 43,0 (39–47.1)
10,902
57.5 (53.6–61.3)
11,109
66.0 (62.5–69.3)
10,105
23 < 0.0001
 Households with improved toilets 6.7 (5.3–8.4)
10,902
10.2 (8.7–11.8)
11,109
17.9 (15.8–20.2)
10,105
11.2 < 0.0001
 Household with modern floor material 19.8 (19.9–23.1)
10,902
27.2 (23.5–31.2)
11,109
28.4 (25.7–31.2)
10,105
8.6 < 0.0001
 Household with electricity 11.6 (9.6–14.0)
10,902
17.8 (15.3–20.5)
11,109
25.6 (22.9–28.8)
10,105
14 < 0.0001
Maternal and reproductive
 ANC visits 4+ 31.0 (28.1–34.0)
7528
63.9 (61.1–66.7)
7944
41.2 (38.7–43.8)
6773
10.2 < 0.0001
 Delivery at health centre 24.4 (21.4–27.7)
12,013
47.7 (43.7–51.8)
12,633
55.0 (51.5–58.5)
10,402
30.6 < 0.0001
 Delivery by qualified staff 25.5 (22.0–29.3)
12,013
51.7 (47.9–55.5)
12,633
40.1 (36.7–43.5)
10,402
14.6 < 0.0001
 Last pregnancy protected against NNT (at least 2 doses of NNT) 32.9 (30.4–35.6)
7528
48.7 (45.7–51.8)
7944
36.6 (34.3–38.8)
6773
3.7 < 0.0001
 Vitamin A postnatal supplementation 18.8 (16.7–21.0) 7528 42.2 (39.3–45.2) 7944 50.2 (47.6–52.8) 6773 31.4 < 0.0001
Nutrition in children
 Vitamin A supplementation 41.4 (38.4–44.5)
8815
74.1 (71.4–76.6)
9666
59.8 (57.0–62.4)
8667
18.4 < 0.0001
 Stunting 42.2 (40.3–44.0)
10,099
37.6 (35.9–39.4)
10,430
38.3 (36.2–40.4)
4857
− 3.9 < 0.0001
 Underweight 28.6 (26.7–30.5)
10,099
26.6 (25.0–27.9)
10,430
25.5 (23.6–27.4)
4857
− 3.1 < 0.001
 Emaciation 12.0 (10.8–13.4)
10,099
14.8 (13.9–15.9)
10,430
12.7 (11.1–14.4)
4857
0.7 < 0.0001
 Low birth weight 3.3 (2.7–4.0)
12,013
3.9 (3.4–4.6)
12,633
4.7 (4.0–5.5)
10,402
1.4 < 0.0001
Immunization coverage
 BCG 70.4 (67.0–73.6)
2003
78.1 (74.5–81.3)
2325
83.3 (80.8–86.1)
1846
12.9 < 0.0001
 DPT3 41.1 (36.9–45.5)
2003
69.2 (65.4–72.7)
2325
63.1 (59.7–66.3)
1846
22.0 < 0.0001
 Polio3 41.3 (37.4–45.2)
2003
63.6 (60.1–67.1)
2325
50.0 (46.5–53.6)
1846
8.7 < 0.0001
 Measles 50.2 (46.6–53.7)
2003
63.6 (65.1–73.9)
2325
71.7 (68.7–74.5)
1846
21.5 < 0.0001
 Total coverage 30.0 (26.5–33.8)
2003
49.6 (45.8–53.5)
2325
38.9 (35.5–42.4)
1846
8.9 < 0.0001
Morbidity (past 2 weeks)
 Prevalence of diarrhoea 17.4 (16.1–18.8)
10,166
13.9 (12.7–15.1)
10,959
8.6 (7.7–9.6)
9655
− 8.8 < 0.0001
 Prevalence of ARI 9.6 (8.6–10.7)
10,166
5.9 (5.2–6.8)
10,959
3.2 (2.7–3.8)
9655
− 6.4 < 0.0001
  1. ANC antenatal clinic, NNT neonatal tetanus toxoid, BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, DPT diphteria pertusis tetanus, ARI acute respiratory infection
  2. aPercent absolute change from 2001 to 2012–2013
  3. £p-value of Chi squared for linear trend in proportions across the three surveys