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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of the risk factors for malaria and bed net use in primary school children in Tanzania

From: Nationwide school malaria parasitaemia survey in public primary schools, the United Republic of Tanzania

Outcome/covariates

Univariable

Model I (N = 47,157)

Model II (N = 30,715)

Malaria

Malaria

Malaria

Bed net use

OR (95% CI)

p- value

OR (95% CI)

p-value

OR (95% CI)

p-value

OR (95% CI)

p-value

Gender

 Male vs female

0.75 (0.71–0.79)

< 0.01

0.77 (0.72–0.81)

< 0.01

0.74 (0.69–0.79)

< 0.01

1.21 (1.14–1.28)

< 0.01

Age (years)

 < 9 vs 10–12

1.06 (0.98–1.15)

0.11

1.05 (0.96–1.14)

0.36

1.03 (0.92–1.15)

0.55

1.1 (1.01–1.20)

0.02

 < 9 vs > 12

1.09 (1.01–1.18)

 

1.06 (0.98–1.15)

 

1.05 (0.95–1.17)

 

1.12 (1.03–1.22)

 

Parental education

 Primary vs no school

1.18 (1.06–1.31)

< 0.01

 

1.18 (1.06–1.32)

< 0.01

0.69 (0.63–0.76)

< 0.01

 Primary vs secondary or higher

0.74 (0.67–0.82)

 

 

0.75 (0.67–0.83)

 

1.48 (1.35–1.61)

 

Bed net use

 No vs yes

0.76 (0.71–0.81)

< 0.01

0.76 (0.71–0.82)

< 0.01

0.81 (0.74–0.88)

< 0.01

 

Malaria

 Negative vs positive

 

 

 

0.81 (0.74–0.88)

< 0.01

Area

 Rural vs urban

0.14 (0.05–0.38)

< 0.01

0.12 (0.066–0.21)

< 0.01

0.15 (0.072–0.29)

< 0.01

1.92 (1.25–2.94)

< 0.01

Altitude (m)

 < 750 vs 750–1250

0.25 (0.12–0.48)

< 0.01

0.18 (0.081–0.39)

< 0.01

0.26 (0.11–0.62)

0.02

0.43 (0.25–0.74)

0.01

 < 750 vs 1250–1750

0.07 (0.04–0.15)

 

0.12 (0.045–0.31)

 

0.25 (0.088–0.72)

 

0.27 (0.14–0.53)

 

 < 750 vs > 1750

0.002 (0.00–0.02)

 

0.02 (0.003–0.14)

 

0.07 (0.0093–0.47)

 

0.12 (0.049–0.31)

 

Temperature suitability index

 TSI (2er intervals)

3.51 (2.80–4.39)

< 0.01

< 0.01

2.2 (1.56–3.09)

< 0.01

1 (0.81–1.24)

0.98

Zone

 Central vs eastern

28.15 (7.68–103.20)

< 0.01

1.86 (0.60–5.72)

< 0.01

2.11 (0.63–7.01)

< 0.01

2.13 (0.96–4.71)

< 0.01

 Central vs western

59.21 (15.40–228.10)

 

31.13 (11.6–83.4)

 

11.21 (3.23–39.0)

 

2.18 (0.91–5.19)

 

 Central vs southern

72.58 (17.70–296.90)

 

2.79 (0.83–9.33)

     

 Central vs southern highlands

2.13 (0.53–8.53)

 

2.64 (0.91–7.67)

 

0.41 (0.092–1.85)

 

0.71 (0.33–1.52)

 

 Central vs southwest highlands

10.33 (2.82–37.80)

 

6.7 (2.52–17.9)

 

3.19 (1.06–9.60)

 

1.57 (0.78–3.15)

 

 Central vs northern

1.05 (0.29–3.77)

 

0.47 (0.17–1.31)

 

0.43 (0.15–1.19)

 

0.72 (0.40–1.30)

 

 Central vs lake

69.76 (23.0–211.9)

 

40.97 (18.0–93.4)

 

24.43 (10.4–57.1)

 

3.54 (2.03–6.18)

 

Eco-zone (tropical)

 Scrubland vs dry forest

4.92 (2.44–9.94)

< 0.01

 

2.06 (1.14–3.72)

0.22

0.93 (0.61–1.41)

0.81

 Scrubland vs moist deci. forest

4.98 (2.31–10.73)

 

 

2.36 (1.21–4.60)

 

0.89 (0.57–1.38)

 

 Scrubland vs mountain system

0.56 (0.23–1.34)

 

 

1.51 (0.68–3.38)

 

1.01 (0.64–1.60)

 

 Scrubland vs rainforest

7.63 (2.90–20.08)

 

 

3.01 (1.41–6.40)

 

1.33 (0.76–2.31)