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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of the risk factors for malaria and bed net use in primary school children in Tanzania

From: Nationwide school malaria parasitaemia survey in public primary schools, the United Republic of Tanzania

Outcome/covariates Univariable Model I (N = 47,157) Model II (N = 30,715)
Malaria Malaria Malaria Bed net use
OR (95% CI) p- value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Male vs female 0.75 (0.71–0.79) < 0.01 0.77 (0.72–0.81) < 0.01 0.74 (0.69–0.79) < 0.01 1.21 (1.14–1.28) < 0.01
Age (years)
 < 9 vs 10–12 1.06 (0.98–1.15) 0.11 1.05 (0.96–1.14) 0.36 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 0.55 1.1 (1.01–1.20) 0.02
 < 9 vs > 12 1.09 (1.01–1.18)   1.06 (0.98–1.15)   1.05 (0.95–1.17)   1.12 (1.03–1.22)  
Parental education
 Primary vs no school 1.18 (1.06–1.31) < 0.01   1.18 (1.06–1.32) < 0.01 0.69 (0.63–0.76) < 0.01
 Primary vs secondary or higher 0.74 (0.67–0.82)    0.75 (0.67–0.83)   1.48 (1.35–1.61)  
Bed net use
 No vs yes 0.76 (0.71–0.81) < 0.01 0.76 (0.71–0.82) < 0.01 0.81 (0.74–0.88) < 0.01  
Malaria
 Negative vs positive     0.81 (0.74–0.88) < 0.01
Area
 Rural vs urban 0.14 (0.05–0.38) < 0.01 0.12 (0.066–0.21) < 0.01 0.15 (0.072–0.29) < 0.01 1.92 (1.25–2.94) < 0.01
Altitude (m)
 < 750 vs 750–1250 0.25 (0.12–0.48) < 0.01 0.18 (0.081–0.39) < 0.01 0.26 (0.11–0.62) 0.02 0.43 (0.25–0.74) 0.01
 < 750 vs 1250–1750 0.07 (0.04–0.15)   0.12 (0.045–0.31)   0.25 (0.088–0.72)   0.27 (0.14–0.53)  
 < 750 vs > 1750 0.002 (0.00–0.02)   0.02 (0.003–0.14)   0.07 (0.0093–0.47)   0.12 (0.049–0.31)  
Temperature suitability index
 TSI (2er intervals) 3.51 (2.80–4.39) < 0.01 < 0.01 2.2 (1.56–3.09) < 0.01 1 (0.81–1.24) 0.98
Zone
 Central vs eastern 28.15 (7.68–103.20) < 0.01 1.86 (0.60–5.72) < 0.01 2.11 (0.63–7.01) < 0.01 2.13 (0.96–4.71) < 0.01
 Central vs western 59.21 (15.40–228.10)   31.13 (11.6–83.4)   11.21 (3.23–39.0)   2.18 (0.91–5.19)  
 Central vs southern 72.58 (17.70–296.90)   2.79 (0.83–9.33)      
 Central vs southern highlands 2.13 (0.53–8.53)   2.64 (0.91–7.67)   0.41 (0.092–1.85)   0.71 (0.33–1.52)  
 Central vs southwest highlands 10.33 (2.82–37.80)   6.7 (2.52–17.9)   3.19 (1.06–9.60)   1.57 (0.78–3.15)  
 Central vs northern 1.05 (0.29–3.77)   0.47 (0.17–1.31)   0.43 (0.15–1.19)   0.72 (0.40–1.30)  
 Central vs lake 69.76 (23.0–211.9)   40.97 (18.0–93.4)   24.43 (10.4–57.1)   3.54 (2.03–6.18)  
Eco-zone (tropical)
 Scrubland vs dry forest 4.92 (2.44–9.94) < 0.01   2.06 (1.14–3.72) 0.22 0.93 (0.61–1.41) 0.81
 Scrubland vs moist deci. forest 4.98 (2.31–10.73)    2.36 (1.21–4.60)   0.89 (0.57–1.38)  
 Scrubland vs mountain system 0.56 (0.23–1.34)    1.51 (0.68–3.38)   1.01 (0.64–1.60)  
 Scrubland vs rainforest 7.63 (2.90–20.08)    3.01 (1.41–6.40)   1.33 (0.76–2.31)