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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Malaria causes long-term effects on markers of iron status in children: a critical assessment of existing clinical and epidemiological tools

Description N Value
Child characteristics
 Age (geometric mean, range) 97 3.8 years (1; 12)
 Age < 60 months 97 63
 Female 98 44
 Nutritional status
  Height (mean ± 2SD) 71 98 cm (69.2; 128.6)
  Weight (geometric mean ± 2SD) 98 14.4 kg (7.7; 26.6)
  Stunted (children < 60 months)a 45 13 (29%)
  Underweight (children < 60 months)a 63 11 (17%)
  Low BMI-for-age (children > 60 months)b 26 8 (31%)
Admission
 Hospital admission (yes/no) 98 60/38
 Admission length (median, IQR) 60 3 days (2; 4)
 Clinical malaria (uncomplicated/severe) 98 68/30
 Clinical co-infection on presentation (yes/no)c 98 22/76
Laboratory parameters
 Malaria parasitaemia on presentation (geometric mean ± 2SD) 98 40,326 IEs/µL (3465; 469,356)
 Haemoglobin on presentation (geometric mean ± 2SD) 98 9.5 g/dL (6.7; 13.5)
 Anaemia level on presentation (no anaemia/mild/moderate)d 98 24/60/14
 Iron deficiency on day 42 (ferritin < 15 µg/L) 52 4
 Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (normal enzyme activity/partial defect/full defect)e 54 39/4/11
 Sickle cell genotype (AA/AC/AF/AS) 98 85/8/2/3
 Raised C-reactive protein on day 0 (> 5 mg/L) 94 93
 Raised α-1-acid glycoprotein on day 0 (> 1 g/L) 92 90
 Positive stool microscopy for anaemia-causing pathogenic organismsf 74 4
Antimalarial treatment prior to hospital attendance 98 19
Antimalarial treatment prescribed (quinine i.v. + artemether–lumefantrine follow-on/artemether–lumefantrine only) 98 44/54
  1. N = Number of children; Value = Number of children unless otherwise specified
  2. aStunting and underweight are defined as height-for-age and weight-for-age, respectively, < − 2 standard deviations of the WHO Growth Reference [46]
  3. bLow BMI-for-age is defined as BMI-for-age < − 2 standard deviations of the WHO Growth Reference [46]
  4. cDermatitis (N = 2), gastroenteritis (N = 10), lower respiratory tract infections (N = 3), suspected sepsis (N = 2), upper respiratory tract infections (N = 2), urinary tract infections (N = 3)
  5. dNo anaemia (Hb ≥ 11 g/dL), mild anaemia (Hb 8–11 g/dL), moderate anaemia (Hb 5–8 g/dL)
  6. eTested on day 42
  7. hHookworm, Hymenopelis nana, Schistosoma mansoni or Strongyloides stercoralis. No children were excluded from the study based on stool findings