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Table 1 Congenital malaria cases reported in the last 40 years in non-endemic area [16]

From: Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas

Author/PMID Endemic area Interval time Antenatal symptoms and treatment (if known) Age at diagnosis Symptoms at diagnosis Plasmodium species and parasitemia Haemoglobin level g/dl Platelets count/µl HIV status Treatment Country of diagnosis
Vernes et al. 1978
PMID: 353713
Cambodia 2 months F 1 day after delivery 20 days F P. vivax Normal Normal Unknown Chloroquine France
Excler et al. 1980
PMID: 6987619
Cambodia 1 year F 1 day F, liver and spleen enlargement P. vivax 8 172,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
PMID: 18307546
Asia Unknown Delivery at home 12 days F, paleness, LSE P. vivax 3.8 159,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Bour´ee et al. 1983
Cameroon 15 days F Birth Lack of reactivity P. falciparum Unknown 85,000 Unknown Unknown France
Ch´eron et al. 1986
Guinea 7 months Malaria during pregnancy 19 days F P. ovale 10 134,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Peigne et al. 1987
Pakistan 4 days Malaria 4 days after delivery 50 days F, LSE, neurological P. vivax 4.3 12,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Madagascar 17 months F/chloroquine 19 days F P. vivax 1.3% 6.1 188,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Ligny et al. 1989
Mali 18 days Malaria during pregnancy 28 days Paleness, LSE P. falciparum 1.5% 5.2 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine France
Hennequin et al. 1991
Cameroon 15 days F Birth LSE, lethargy P. falciparum 0.1% Unknown Unknown Unknown Chloroquine France
Romand et al. 1994
Togo 14 months F 60 days F, paleness, LSE P. falciparum 6.3 Unknown Unknown Halofantrine France
Niyongabo et al. 1989
Laos 2 years Quinine 19 days F, haemolysis, irritability P. vivax and P. malariae 10.8 60,000 Unknown Quinine and chloroquine France
Hindi and Azimi. 1980
Nigeria 1 year Malaria during pregnancy 35 days F, anaemia, LSE P. falciparum 8.7 257,000 ng Chloroquine California
Park et al. 1984
Africa 0 Malaria during pregnancy 39 days F, poor feeding, paleness, LSE P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 ng Chloroquine Korea
Gouyon et al. 1986
Guyana 6 months Malaria during pregnancy/4-aminoquinolein 21 days F, poor feeding, paleness, LSE P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 ng Chloroquine France
Lynk and Gold 1989
India (two cases) 6 months, 13 months F during third trimester 28 days, 35 days Irregular F, anorexia and lethargy, LSE, anaemia and thrombocytopeaenia P. vivax 4.1 and 5.9 47,000 Unknown Chloroquine Canada
Joffe and Jadavji 1990
India (two cases) 9 months Malaria (P. vivax) during pregnancy/chloroquine 21 days F, diarrhoea, poor feeding, LSE, anaemia neutropenia and thrombocytopaenia P. vivax 1 57,000 Unknown Chloroquine Canada
Subramanian et al. 1992
Salvador 4 months F/antibiotics 15 days F, coryza, anaemia P. vivax Unknown 52,000 Unknown Chloroquine Texas
Hulbert 1992
Guatemala 1 year Asthenia 30 days F, LSE, diarrhoea, anaemia P. vivax 6.6 70,000 Unknown Chloroquine California
Alves 1995
Brazil 40 days Unknown 14 days Unknown P. vivax Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown São Paulo State
Lee et al. 1996
Pakistan Unknown F/Ibuprofen 60 days F, anaemia, haemolysis, cough, paleness, LSE P. vivax 5.3 69,000 ng Chloroquine Singapore
Marques et al. 1996
Brazil (two cases) Unknown Malaria during pregnancy Unknown Anaemia, LSE P. vivax, P. falciparum Unknown Unknown Unknown unknown São Paulo state
Kuyucu et al.1999
Turkey Unknown F and chills/Chloroquine 19 days F, poor feeding, haemolysis, anaemia, LSE P. vivax 8.5 50,000 ng Chloroquine Turkey
Niederer and Loeffler 1999
India 1 year Unknown 23 days F, cough, irritability, poor feeding, anaemia, leucopaenia, thrombocytopaenia P. vivax 10.7 27,000 Unknown Chloroquine California
Romero Urbano et al. 2000
Guinea 1 month Unknown 21 days F, anaemia, thrombocytopenia P. falciparum Unknown Unknown Unknown Mefloquine Spain
Zenz et al. 2000
Ghana 18 months Unknown 56 days F, LSE, anaemia P. falciparum and P. malariae 8.3 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine Germany
MMWR, March 1, 2002/51(08); 16-5
Congo 5 years Malaria 5 years before pregnancy/chloroquine 21 days F, dark urine, respiratory troubles, anaemia P. malariae 6.6 109,000 ng Chloroquine North Carolina, USA
Olowu et al. 2002
Nigeria   Unknown 8 h unknown unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Chloroquine Osun State, Nigeria
April 22, 2005/54(15);383–384
Guatemala 5 months F, coryza 49 days Moderate F, anaemia P. vivax 6.2 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine New York, USA
Siriez et al. 2005
Congo 2 years Unknown 42 days F, haemolysis, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, poor feeding, LSE P. malariae 3% 5.8 110,000 HIV-1 Chloroquine France
Del Castillo et al. 2017
Nigeria 3 months Pueperal F, thrombocytopenia during delivery 14 days F, cough P. falciparum 5.4% Unknown Unknown Unknown Quinidine and Clindamycin Washington (Columbia)
Del Punta et al. 2010
Pakistan 1 year F, anaemia, thrombocytopenia during delivery 22 days F, paleness, whining cry, liver and spleen enlargement, P. vivax 2% 12.3 14,000 Unknown Chloroquine Italy
Voittier et al. 2008
Guyana 6 months malaria P. vivax/4-aminoquinoline 21 days F, paleness, liver and spleen enlargement P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Voittier et al.2008
Angola 3 years HIV 19 days F, poor feeding P. ovale 2% 12 38,000 ng Chloroquine France
Hagmann et al. 2007
Honduras 9 months Malaria during pregnancy 26 days F, cough, runny nose P. vivax 4–5% 11.4 313,000 Unknown Chloroquine New York, USA
De Pontual et al. 2006
Congo 2 years HIV 42 days F, liver and spleen enlargement P. malariae 1.8% 6.4 122,000 ng Chloroquine France
Hewson et al. 2003
India 4 months F, abdominal pain, rigors 19 days Apnoea, bradycardia P. vivax 12.2 95,000 Unknown Chloroquine South Australia
  1. F fever, LSE liver spleen enlargement, ng negative