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Table 1 Congenital malaria cases reported in the last 40 years in non-endemic area [16]

From: Challenging diagnosis of congenital malaria in non-endemic areas

Author/PMID Endemic area Interval time Antenatal symptoms and treatment (if known) Age at diagnosis Symptoms at diagnosis Plasmodium species and parasitemia Haemoglobin level g/dl Platelets count/µl HIV status Treatment Country of diagnosis
Vernes et al. 1978 PMID: 353713 Cambodia 2 months F 1 day after delivery 20 days F P. vivax Normal Normal Unknown Chloroquine France
Excler et al. 1980 PMID: 6987619 Cambodia 1 year F 1 day F, liver and spleen enlargement P. vivax 8 172,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Lajarrige PMID: 18307546 Asia Unknown Delivery at home 12 days F, paleness, LSE P. vivax 3.8 159,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Bour´ee et al. 1983 PMID:6340844 Cameroon 15 days F Birth Lack of reactivity P. falciparum Unknown 85,000 Unknown Unknown France
Ch´eron et al. 1986 PMID:3813804 Guinea 7 months Malaria during pregnancy 19 days F P. ovale 10 134,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Peigne et al. 1987 PMID:3318635 Pakistan 4 days Malaria 4 days after delivery 50 days F, LSE, neurological P. vivax 4.3 12,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Poirrier PMID:18307546 Madagascar 17 months F/chloroquine 19 days F P. vivax 1.3% 6.1 188,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Ligny et al. 1989 PMID:2696411 Mali 18 days Malaria during pregnancy 28 days Paleness, LSE P. falciparum 1.5% 5.2 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine France
Hennequin et al. 1991 PMID:1819395 Cameroon 15 days F Birth LSE, lethargy P. falciparum 0.1% Unknown Unknown Unknown Chloroquine France
Romand et al. 1994 PMID:8078837 Togo 14 months F 60 days F, paleness, LSE P. falciparum 6.3 Unknown Unknown Halofantrine France
Niyongabo et al. 1989 PMID:2654272 Laos 2 years Quinine 19 days F, haemolysis, irritability P. vivax and P. malariae 10.8 60,000 Unknown Quinine and chloroquine France
Hindi and Azimi. 1980 PMID:7005857 Nigeria 1 year Malaria during pregnancy 35 days F, anaemia, LSE P. falciparum 8.7 257,000 ng Chloroquine California
Park et al. 1984 PMID:12891034 Africa 0 Malaria during pregnancy 39 days F, poor feeding, paleness, LSE P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 ng Chloroquine Korea
Gouyon et al. 1986 PMID:3530172 Guyana 6 months Malaria during pregnancy/4-aminoquinolein 21 days F, poor feeding, paleness, LSE P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 ng Chloroquine France
Lynk and Gold 1989 PMID:2594448 India (two cases) 6 months, 13 months F during third trimester 28 days, 35 days Irregular F, anorexia and lethargy, LSE, anaemia and thrombocytopeaenia P. vivax 4.1 and 5.9 47,000 Unknown Chloroquine Canada
Joffe and Jadavji 1990 PMID:2196518 India (two cases) 9 months Malaria (P. vivax) during pregnancy/chloroquine 21 days F, diarrhoea, poor feeding, LSE, anaemia neutropenia and thrombocytopaenia P. vivax 1 57,000 Unknown Chloroquine Canada
Subramanian et al. 1992 PMID:1520785 Salvador 4 months F/antibiotics 15 days F, coryza, anaemia P. vivax Unknown 52,000 Unknown Chloroquine Texas
Hulbert 1992 PMID:1576289 Guatemala 1 year Asthenia 30 days F, LSE, diarrhoea, anaemia P. vivax 6.6 70,000 Unknown Chloroquine California
Alves 1995 PMID:14689015 Brazil 40 days Unknown 14 days Unknown P. vivax Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown São Paulo State
Lee et al. 1996 PMID:9046213 Pakistan Unknown F/Ibuprofen 60 days F, anaemia, haemolysis, cough, paleness, LSE P. vivax 5.3 69,000 ng Chloroquine Singapore
Marques et al. 1996 PMID:14688962 Brazil (two cases) Unknown Malaria during pregnancy Unknown Anaemia, LSE P. vivax, P. falciparum Unknown Unknown Unknown unknown São Paulo state
Kuyucu et al.1999 PMID:10770683 Turkey Unknown F and chills/Chloroquine 19 days F, poor feeding, haemolysis, anaemia, LSE P. vivax 8.5 50,000 ng Chloroquine Turkey
Niederer and Loeffler 1999 PMID:9951993 India 1 year Unknown 23 days F, cough, irritability, poor feeding, anaemia, leucopaenia, thrombocytopaenia P. vivax 10.7 27,000 Unknown Chloroquine California
Romero Urbano et al. 2000 PMID:11003930 Guinea 1 month Unknown 21 days F, anaemia, thrombocytopenia P. falciparum Unknown Unknown Unknown Mefloquine Spain
Zenz et al. 2000 PMID:10890139 Ghana 18 months Unknown 56 days F, LSE, anaemia P. falciparum and P. malariae 8.3 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine Germany
D’avanzo MMWR, March 1, 2002/51(08); 16-5 Congo 5 years Malaria 5 years before pregnancy/chloroquine 21 days F, dark urine, respiratory troubles, anaemia P. malariae 6.6 109,000 ng Chloroquine North Carolina, USA
Olowu et al. 2002 PMID:12221966 Nigeria   Unknown 8 h unknown unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Chloroquine Osun State, Nigeria
Doraiswamy CDC-MMRW April 22, 2005/54(15);383–384 Guatemala 5 months F, coryza 49 days Moderate F, anaemia P. vivax 6.2 Unknown Unknown Chloroquine New York, USA
Siriez et al. 2005 PMID:16465819 Congo 2 years Unknown 42 days F, haemolysis, anaemia, thrombocytopaenia, poor feeding, LSE P. malariae 3% 5.8 110,000 HIV-1 Chloroquine France
Del Castillo et al. 2017 PMID:28077745 Nigeria 3 months Pueperal F, thrombocytopenia during delivery 14 days F, cough P. falciparum 5.4% Unknown Unknown Unknown Quinidine and Clindamycin Washington (Columbia)
Del Punta et al. 2010 PMID:20193072 Pakistan 1 year F, anaemia, thrombocytopenia during delivery 22 days F, paleness, whining cry, liver and spleen enlargement, P. vivax 2% 12.3 14,000 Unknown Chloroquine Italy
Voittier et al. 2008 PMID:18307546 Guyana 6 months malaria P. vivax/4-aminoquinoline 21 days F, paleness, liver and spleen enlargement P. vivax 1% 12.6 45,000 Unknown Chloroquine France
Voittier et al.2008 PMID:18307546 Angola 3 years HIV 19 days F, poor feeding P. ovale 2% 12 38,000 ng Chloroquine France
Hagmann et al. 2007 PMID:17505278 Honduras 9 months Malaria during pregnancy 26 days F, cough, runny nose P. vivax 4–5% 11.4 313,000 Unknown Chloroquine New York, USA
De Pontual et al. 2006 PMID:17030531 Congo 2 years HIV 42 days F, liver and spleen enlargement P. malariae 1.8% 6.4 122,000 ng Chloroquine France
Hewson et al. 2003 PMID:14629507 India 4 months F, abdominal pain, rigors 19 days Apnoea, bradycardia P. vivax 12.2 95,000 Unknown Chloroquine South Australia
  1. F fever, LSE liver spleen enlargement, ng negative