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Table 1 Characteristics of study population, and association between clinical, demographic, and epidemiological factors and malaria infection

From: Subpatent malaria in a low transmission African setting: a cross-sectional study using rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) from Zambezi region, Namibia

  Total (%)
n = 1919
LAMP negative (%)
n = 1876
LAMP positive (%)
n = 42
p-value
Clinical
 Fever in the past 2 weeks
  No 1292 (69.2) 1269 (98.2) 23 (1.8) 0.04
  Yes 574 (30.8) 555 (96.7 19 (3.3)
Demographics
 Gender
  Female 1056 (55.0) 1033 (97.8) 23 (2.2) 0.84
  Male 863 (45.0) 843 (97.7) 20 (2.3)
 Age (years)
  < 15 902 (47.0) 889 (98.6) 13 (1.4) 0.07
  15–40 629 (32.8) 609 (96.8) 20 (3.2)
  > 40 387 (20.2) 378 (97.4) 10 (2.6)
 Occupationa
  Agricultural 241 (12.6) 229 (95.0) 12 (4.9) 0.001
  Fishing 25 (1.3) 24 (96.0) 1 (4.0)
  Cattle herder 27 (1.4) 24 (88.9) 3 (11.1)
  Other manual labour 51 (2.7) 49 (96.1) 2 (3.9)
  Police officer/guard 16 (0.8) 16 (100) 0 (0)
  Office/commercial/professional 28 (1.5) 27 (96.4) 1 (3.6)
  Small market sales 27 (1.4) 27 (100) 0 (0)
  Unemployed/homemaker/retiree 443 (23.1) 438 (98.9) 5 (1.1)
  Student 146 (7.6) 142 (97.3) 4 (2.7)
  Otherb 13 (0.7) 11 (84.6) 2 (15.4)
  ≤ 15 years old 902 (47.0) 889 (98.6) 13 (1.4)
 Socio-economic status
  Lowest 368 (19.7) 360 (97.8) 8 (2.2) 0.99
  Lower-middle 353 (18.9) 345 (97.7) 8 (2.3)
  Middle 380 (20.3) 372 (97.9) 8 (2.1)
  Upper-middle 384 (20.6) 376 (97.9) 8 (2.1)
  Highest 384 (20.6) 374 (97.4) 10 (2.6)
Residence
 Health facility catchment area
  Chinchimane 179 (9.3) 174 (97.2) 5 (2.8) 0.83
  Choi 308 (16.1) 300 (97.4) 8 (2.6)
  Kanono 226 (11.9) 221 (97.8) 5 (2.2)
  Kasheshe 340 (17.7) 331 (97.4) 9 (2.6)
  Sesheke 462 (24.1) 455 (98.5) 7 (1.5)
  Sibbinda 403 (21.0) 394 (97.8) 9 (2.2)
Travel
 Travel in past 8 weeks
  No 1597 (85.5) 1560 (97.7) 37 (2.2) 0.17
  Yes 270 (14.5) 263 (97.4) 7 (2.4)
 Travel categories     
  No travel 1597 (85.5) 1562 (97.8) 35 (2.2) 0.76
  Domestic travel 256 (13.7) 249 (97.3) 7 (2.1)
  International travel 16 (0.9) 16 (100) 0 (0)
Housing
 Tertile of housing qualityc
  Lowest 866 (46.4) 849 (98.0) 17 (2.0) 0.74
  Middle 405 (21.7) 395 (97.5) 10 (2.5)
  Highest 594 (31.9) 579 (97.5) 15 (2.5)
 Individuals per household
  < 5 194 (10.6) 192 (99.0) 2 (1.0) 0.50
  ≥ 5 and < 10 1011 (55.1) 988 (97.7) 23 (2.3)
  ≥ 10 629 (34.3) 613 (97.5) 16 (2.5)
Vector control
 ITN ownership
  None 854 (45.6) 834 (97.7) 20 (2.3) 0.88
  < 1 ITN per 2 people 647 (34.6) 634 (98.0) 13 (2.0)
  ≥ 1 ITN per 2 people 371 (19.8) 362 (97.6) 9 (2.4)
 ITN use
  No 1250 (66.9) 1226 (98.1) 24 (1.9) 0.18
  Yes 619 (33.1) 601 (97.1) 18 (2.9)
 Sprayed in past year
  No 723 (40.4) 710 (98.2) 13 (1.8) 0.36
  Yes 1065 (59.6) 1039 (97.6) 26 (2.4)
  1. LAMP loop-mediated isothermal amplification, RDT rapid diagnostic test, ITN insecticide treated bed net, IRS indoor residual spraying
  2. aOccupation was only assessed for participants over 15 years of age
  3. bHerbalist, healer, bartender, land surveyor, soldier, headman
  4. cHousing quality tertiles based on principle component analysis of wall type, roof type, eaves, and windows