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Table 1 Description of sample characteristics

From: A comparative study of the prevalence of and factors associated with insecticide-treated nets usage among children under 5 years of age in households that already own nets in Malawi

Variable 2010
n = 12,378
2015–2016
n = 10,196
Comparison p value
n % n %
Child factors
 Age (months) 0.002
  ≤12 3032 (24.5) 2608 (25.6)  
  13–23 2409 (19.5) 1762 (17.3)  
  24–59 6937 (56.0) 5826 (57.1)  
 Gender of child 0.242
  Male 6045 (48.2) 5077 (49.8)  
  Female 6333 (51.2) 5119 (50.2)  
Maternal characteristics
 Maternal age (years) 0.013
  15–24 4180 (33.8) 3700 (36.3)  
  24–34 5915 (47.8) 4564 (44.8)  
  ≥ 35 2283 (18.4) 1932 (18.9)  
Educational level < 0.001
  No formal education 1987 (16.1) 1192 (11.7)  
  Primary 8310 (67.1) 6708 (65.8)  
  Secondary/post-secondary 2081 (16.8) 2296 (22.5)  
 Employed < 0.001
  No 2985 (24.1) 2969 (29.1)  
  Yes 9394 (75.9) 7227 (70.9)  
 Ethnicity 0.289
  Chewa 4326 (35.0) 3566 (35.0)  
  Tumbuka 1081 (8.7) 938 (9.2)  
  Lomwe 2014 (16.3) 1855 (18.2)  
  Yao 1634 (13.2) 1498 (14.7)  
  Ngoni 1449 (11.7) 1154 (11.3)  
  Others 1874 (15.1) 1186 (11.6)  
 Marital status < 0.001
  Unmarried 1366 (11.0) 1430 (14.0)  
  Married 11,012 (89.0) 8766 (86.0)  
 Religion 0.058
  Catholic 2655 (21.4) 1900 (18.6)  
  Protestant 2581 (20.9) 2279 (22.4)  
  Muslim and others 7142 (57.7) 6017 (59.0)  
 Health behaviour < 0.001
  Desirable 7889 (64.0) 4447 (36.0)  
  Undesirable 4489 (43.9) 5749 (56.1)  
Household factors
 Wealth 0.188
  Poorest 2303 (52.1) 2118 (47.9)  
  Poorer 2643 (53.6) 2284 (46.4)  
  Middle 2786 (27.3) 2076 (42.7)  
  Richer 2337 (55.0) 1912 (45.0)  
  Richest 2309 (56.1) 1806 (43.9)  
 Gender of head of household < 0.001
  Male 10,105 (81.6) 7868 (77.2)  
  Female 2273 (18.4) 2328 (22.8)  
 Roofing material < 0.001
  Unimproved 8418 (68.0) 5967 (58.5)  
  Improved 3960 (32.0) 4229 (41.5)  
 Region 0.981
  Northern 1430 (11.6) 1167 (11.4)  
  Central 5251 (42.4) 4279 (42.0)  
  Southern 5697 (46.0) 4750 (46.6)  
 Residence 0.830
  Urban 1749 (14.1) 1393 (13.7)  
  Rural 10629 (85.9) 8803 (86.3)  
 Household ITN supply 0.089
  Very poor 6007 (56.0) 4718 (44.0)  
  Poor 3491 (54.4) 2930 (45.6)  
  Good 2880 (53.1) 2548 (46.9)  
  1. ITN insecticide-treated net